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(@) eAQ Acr AO


Acr®pA c
Big Bang WvAaU ~B @ 13.6 AcAUS ca ~w | jq WvS jce Acr T ~o@ BfcS S ީS @AAS jq ~UOS @Tq @a | ~T w\ oS d MBwl jce jq oS AcAU B^ T @ | A@ا ~w ~oFAU c^R @@Av @ cU AS c |

Acr®pA ATASv AS@ ToFq ASvS, vS (H) R esBS (fusion) @ PA AAUT @^@ (He) R Zc ~\ ATH AUAT R AvAT (gf qBS) @^@ c nuclei | ~SFSF TMAU@ ް˻ @^@ ZS PA AS | TvTAv r@ ~Argw vS, @بAgw AAUT AaU Ar Acr TkU ɰS | jaɦ qU@vS R ASAvS (~F^ ~AT@ g @H AcrK) AaUq |[1] jq ~S ALL@ Ac ATU s scQH |

1964 U AS BA cU UFcvA ~FArgc ~Acyp Cosmic Background Radiation s@ cU s Big Flash c T ~U, Big Bangj mpAAO | ~sk ASs cl Acr H jq ~U PW c ~B AH a oS microwavej | T ~U @ ~UOS @S G. Gamow OA\Ur r@ | jq microwave AcrKH @ TH s 400,000 ca c Ar Acr AaU TpH jce ~@fS (homogeneous & isotropic) - o TSF ~TF AaU WSL | ~oFAv, ~ɻl ɩr ATAUS ca cݮ s^, ~S@vq ~BS, @H Hubble Space Telescope j SwU cq | Rq TSF cAr WSL ~erUq T@K ToFT nT nT SS oS SfA@ (galaxy), SfA@ ި (cluster and supercluster of galaxies), SS oS SQn gpA cfB |

2014 U Hubble j ̮kf James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) j ~@r R @ | jq c FAr telescope Acr qA T AcAUS ca ~^@ sw R ~U@ɩ @c | JWST oS @@Av wcKH AcK ha :

1. T ~U ~R Acr AcrKH
2. SfA@ B^F
3. T B^ R w pA
4. H ~Acgɻc
jq T B^ g @A^@ esBS (fusion) U H R He BUAS @ ^ @ m m ~Q@p gf TMAU@ ް˻AU | Fusion j BUAS rK wU, ~ɻl @^ nuclear ~S ASg wU T@K O Tp O s | ZS SQn @^ @ gf TMAU@ ް˻, sTS U, AS@U qFA | @^ @ k ~mHAU ~Q@p \@ ް˻ BL | cq ~mH @ ~cAr qBS | jq SQn rK BfcS @TS c q AS Acr ~UOS d @S cQ|AST O^rZ (S. Chandrasekhar) | ~\ c qeUF @AcB AcrAcFU ަ ~ɮ BBq j@Av c ~Acy @S AAS |[2] sA j@Av g (Ms) ks g (Mo) 1.4 H O @T (Ms<1.4Mo) U rK BfcS O Aw a, Zc WS jce Zc wT (e@OS BSF) R BU (e ɰ) AH Amϩ | T@K e@OS co qU@vS \v O | jq O ST degeneracy pressure s l ha @xvT LL Pauli Principle | ɴAU ZS s qU@vS Zc @a@Aa w WJKWJAK @ @ A@ا j@Ao@ qU@vS j@q ~cm s co | ~S@v j@ O j@BS cAr c AST S @U Zc Ag s , q@T house full ~cm | q s g ks g H O @T, T@Kf e@OS@ AT qU@vS "degenerecy pressure" | jq Amϩ ~cm@ white dwarf c Ԯɰ cTS cU | ~T ksR rK BfcS cTSL nT nT ASg sc |

~SFA@ Ms>1.4Mo U Av white dwarf ~cm T sc S | T@K electron degeneracy pressure@ ~AnT @ jce jq e@OS i@c ~ @S @ S, s ~ @S nuclear BUAS ~cAr Sq | ZS d ~A e@OS jce @\Sɩf BSS | j U @^@AU j@n AH vS, qU@vS R ASvS T | qU@vS R vS ATU PA ASAvS R ASvS | ~F^ wT, AB jce WS ~cm ASAvS vS ATU PA @ ~ ASvS jce ABvS c ~FAxv-qU@vS | ABvS R qU@vS ATU Wv j@ ~@\Sf AcmH - s ST super nova | j U cq ~mH ~AcrɮF wA aA k k^ | ~cAr ~er oS ASvS TA - ~c e@بAO @ T@K U | Ac @U Z s s jq ~erAv g (Mn) sA ks g q @ AS H @T U ASvS "degeneracy pressure" T@K e@OS T c | B^ Sc ASvS , s ~A@ THAc@ @^@ cU gc s | j cFɮ Tn r @ @بA A@UATv jce RBS ks T c OqR gf | q j WSL @ S gcq gU |


(Z) MBw B^


Super nova @ PA U O gf TMAU@ ް˻AU | Super nova gm @q sw sw B^ S AXf B^ | ~T MBw TkU ɰS ha super nova jce ~SF kcިdK oecrK c star dust | 98% H jce He R cA@ 2% gf ް˻ (C, N, O, Fe, Ni, Si, Ca .....) gas nebula c TW S cJo T@K vS |

1Se aAc : WSTS gas nebula s qBS @ qAST s^ c TMAU@ ް˻ a | gS@ AcmH @ B^ cU jq oS ScU oH W^ |

T@K e@OS U cOq wT @ @^ ~erAv —jAvq gAcKF ks | Tn c UQ AAw MJaU @^ vS esBS U THAc@ ~S BU Ri s ToFT PA AAUT (He) : H+H —> He + rA | T@K e@OS R H Amϩ ~cm ~S | B^ fWBfcf ks | j@q T ScU cA@ ~erAU WSfgk nT cAU@H, SA, wHި (asteroids) m ToFT PA w |

ks @a wAU @ cArgw wFɮ c s ~Q@p wT | @ ˨ w (rocky planets) | co, n, pAcf R TU H | ~Q@p k s, ~S@ i jce RBS gf cU ~S@v wFɮ o Z | w Ri - gas giants cpmA, rAS, qSɮ R SOS s H |


w) MBw H ^S


MBw pAcf aɦ TU jce cpmA R rAS @@Av w ~^ j@@Kf
(unicellular) H @ cS ~a | ca 10/12 ~w @بTd ~U (Antarctica) @ R j@ \@A, s l TUw, Zc BS pA @ | @S OfS@U AcrU @S o jq v@v TU @ Aav@ j sw sw o AaU | 1984 j jAv@ @بA R s | AT@ ~ScfQAH@ fQ cF@AvA BfcE (bacteria fossil)-j cF AmA Sɽ @ AcrU P PO | j@ Zc @wB UZ "We are All Martians!" sq @, jq OɡUF@ AXo^ o vJ@AS | j TUw c ZJBZJAB @R jZSR s^ H ɦ R sAS | c O OUa, OUc | cpmA cpl Ac ~^w q (Europa) w @AiS c ~mH SfO BUf T UA@ ~a cU ^ @ ha | cpmA BU vS S (tidal forces) U s l^ , q RZS i ݩ ~F S | @Bq j@@Kf Bfc @a Europa cɮmS Ac T^ SR |


W)
Exo-Planet cr


MBw cq w ~AmL T TAH U 1995 j | w S ca jq
extra-solar c exo-planet c^ c LL R F R wa | A ީwU j@ Tm conference U jq AcK | jZS s^ TAH j oS w eZF 400 |


C) Acr AcrUL : ~AT TSc j@@f gAT Acm


jc kL j@v AO @ SR s@ | ks c Oq @a kL ha 4.2 ~U ca | ~U ca 6 UQ @Av
(trillion) TqU ZU s | jq AcrU eZFU cowTF @ BSF SQn TU j@v ZUS model PA @ s@ |

pAcf cFɮo (radius) ha 4,000 TqU c 6,500 A@UATv | kL T@Ai@ @AT sA AcAUS gw j@ gw @ ASq, U pAcf cFɮ (diameter) c 1.3 AxvATv, ~ɻl j@Av ~C TS | U ks cFɮ c 1.4 ATv, ~ɻl Halloween j @بT T | U jq cO @a Av, ~@Av @بT, ~T @ @ة k @c ? - 25,000 TqU c 40,000 A@UATv ! jq gfKH kL BSFq ~A BU R a ATvATv Z | s w ASBm ~U Sq, s ~T pAwO , @a ~Q@p fc ~U j j@cq b@ s | ~B@ @S vAUm oF Sq exo-planet- BɮAB Z | ~k gAcKF ASBm ~cUA (infra-red) ~U sF JA Zc R sc cU ~r @ s |

jc TBwA@ c cosmic T T j@v Ac SR s@ | pAcf cݮ 4.6 AcAUS ca | TS @ s@ j@Av 24 Wxv AST PA @ a pAcf qA | ɩ cv d, AS ɩ cv rK (~ɻl AST 1 Wxv TS 200 ATAUS ca) | T Wxv AS@ @ A@aq BS Sq | @Ac gK "g^ q ~AT sw / sZS ASB A ~^K SS pA@ cc @AaUS AcXo |" A@ا g Ov (3.8 AcAUS ca ~w) Z sha Cyano bacteria Z W e @a jce photo synthesis j sF ~ABS PA @a | mfgk "Stromatolites" ha Cyano bacteria @UAS AU |

c@Kf (multi-cellular) Hf ~Acgɻc c — ɩ ~vv (~B @ 800 ATAUS ca ~w) | pAcf H qA r@ ~Argw B ~a j@@Kf BL | j@@Kf @ c@Kf, jq ^A ToF ~A fW T cFcoS UQHf |

qSɮ R بUc^ wa B^ ɩ jwv | ɩ jwv OA\Ur ATASv qSɮ Ac R mSFf (mammals) U d | AST rK c Tn 1.5 ATASv ~w (~B @ 5 ATAUS ca ~w) TSKFBA T AASAo hominid Ardi B^ | AAT PA R AUAZ qA d AST rK (~ɻl ~B@) 70 ATAU @ ~w !


O)
Exo-planet qAcp


Exo-planet ~Acy R TB@ oS Av : T ASvS AST ~S ~prF wAv (P) OU AAn Av@ (S) OU c U ATAU | j@Av w BSF jq swUSpF c g@^ c center of mass (C.M.) Ac^Av@ AW | w vSS Av OUS T Uq ~Z wAv g (mp) c @ s | A@ gc v jc v Zc | sA @ش jq ~erAv@ jA s OS c SfO (2) AOA Tf@HAv @ ަۨS |

C. M.j ~cmS P R S-j g R ASgrfU |

2Se aAc : w- swU SpF | wAAcAo @ ~prF w g ASH |

Dp R Ds sA C. M. @ snT w R Av kL , U ASvS AST cU

ms . Ds = mp . Dp jce
ms . Vs = mp. Vp
sZS
Vs R Vp ha R w ~cS wAcw | R w ~cS T TS, s U ATAU OU ha |

sA wAv (jce Av) @Q TUAv ~T pAZ cc (edge-on-view), U pAcf @ Av ~ɩ wAcw (radial velocity Vr) cɦ R @T Z sc UT U T |

UmvrS JA sA @S wTf vS@ qU A A ~T A@ ~ɮ R OU s AZ (R AS) UQ @c s ~ɮ^ vS rNv JO ްɻ (higher frequency) Ri jce nT k sR vS qU SfO ްɻ Sc s | jq cFv@ Doppler Effect cU | j@qgc @S ~U l ~T A@ av jU ~ɩ @ز (frequency) c s, s@ cU s blue shift @H SfU e j @ز ~SF eAU @ cAr | k sR ~U UU A@ s, s@ cU Doppler red shift | s @S TMAU@ ް˻@ AB @U s cHɻUf Z s ް˻ ~cF˻ ~LAO - ~CU a c wU m T | jq cHɻUf Doppler shift TUq cI s ~U lAv @ة cw ~T A@ jAw ~ɮa ~c k sha (Vr) |

3Se aAc : ~ɩ wA Vr j cɦ @T | b j hO Vs U Av ~cS wAcw | T U ~cS T

cp@ @Q BSF T Vr j Riަ b j T | jq b j hO U Av ~cS wAcw Vs | Vr j AcS @ Av j@ @ W ~ɮ @ة T Uw (T) Bq T s | s R w ~cmS jce C.M. Ac^ j@ U Z @ q ~Z wAv ~cS TR T |

s H ZJB ~T UQF, q @a@Aa kL jce ~T ks c Oq av (G R M class) ca | j U Arv Ai@ gc TUq cI sc ~Z w vSS OUa A@S jce Vs R T j TS @ة |

~c ASvS T@K jce wA AXf AST @ TH @ s s

Dp3 = (G.ms)/(4π2).T2 ------ (1)

G U ASvS T@K oc@, s TS BS ~a | Av g ms ks g TS o | jq Tf@H @ Bq Dp TS R sha |

~c Vp = (wAv @Q PWF)/(~cS T) = (2πDp)/T

s @ BS wU Vp @ة |
jA@ ASvS pf AST cU
ms.Vs = mp.Vp

~ɻl ~Z wAv g

mp=(ms.Vs)/Vp ----- (2)

jZS UQ @ s s sA pAcf T w pAcf Tq k @ ks @a@Aa g @ AQH @ U Vs=(mp.Vp)/ms ~ 1 AxvATv / @ | j ~\ wA U XoA Zq sc S | jq @H pAcf T exo-planet jq gc ZJB c @ Zc @AiS | ~SF A@ cpmA T c w sA Av Zc @a @ q c Oq B Z sc | j ST R a hot jupiters | jq @Hq ~B s^ s exo-planet ~Acyp a cArgwq "hot jupiter" B |

Exo-planet ~Acy jce ~ݩS T AXf ~a | wAv @Q sA jTS s AQH T Av ~T @a @ ~eAr@ gc b@ , U jq T Av mgAc@ BU TA@ gc @T sc | jq WvS@ transit cU | j@ ~F^ ~eAr@ wH Ac gc s | n R co w transit AAO cF |

TS @ s@ R w cFɮo snT Rs jce Rp | pAcf pA@H @ w @QAv edge-on Uq transit Z c :

4Se aAc : w transitj T BU

Transitj T wAv@ Z S wUR sQH j@Av av ~erR b@ a ZS BU @ةv @TU v T s | w R AQ QnU (projected areas) ~Sɩ (ratio) Ai@ @c transit T sc A@ S | o s@ Avq wU@ | U transit j T BU @T ATH c

w AQ QnU
------------------- =
(πRp2)/(πRs2)=Rp2/Rs2
AQ QnU

sA Av cFɮ wAv cF 100 H cAr (sTS ks R pAcf Qn) U BU @Tc Tn 0.01 % | MgwFnT Hubble Space Telescope-j jv o | c jq ˻@F gkp @S vAUm QT cq | ~crF "hot jupiter" j transit j BSF BU @Tc 1 % @H j Qn Rs ~ 10 Rp | jq ˻@F T c vAUm ~L ToF | Tv@, jqgc ~Z wAv cFɮo T s |

~T ~wq ZAa s U Arv exo-planet g (mp) ASH @ s | sA j@q w@ transit j ToFT T s U cFɮoR (Rp) BS s jce @ wAv WSL @K s Bq | ~T BAS pAcf WSL BU WSL OH cAr |

~\AS ~w 20 ~Uca k j@Av exo-planet U Arv j sF ~Acyp a s AQH T (T) Tn 13 AS | ~T R w g@^ @ w kL Dp jce T-j @ػ (Tf@H (2)) ~wq ~UOS @Aa | @ Z sha, s jq Qn Dp U jw ATAUS A@UATv, pAcf-ks kL @ ~S@ @T | A@ا s Av ks @ ~S@ @T BU q wAv Tn pAcf @a@Aa | ~ A 40 ~U ca k s wAv ~Acyp a @ cU s pAcf c gq — g aH jce cF ASH | WSL BU TS | jZS s ATH BU @ cS |

j@Av TfQ ~@r j@Av av ~er, sZS gf TMAU@ ް˻ ATH 2 % , ~ɻl BAvU ̮AS@ An jce q BSFq H ~Acgɻc cS cAr, ks T @@r ca | Hubble j OZ j ToF 16Av w transit o | jq oS TfQ Bq exo-planet j@v eZFɩAL@ Ac @ s | AT@ Ac TS @TQ r@ 20 % @ 30 % w ~a | ~crFq H cswf w eZF ݩ Oq ~S@ @T |

5Se aAc : ~@r j@ s ~er w transit j ToFT Hubble Telescope j sF j@ SB ~S@ exo-planet ^S STS | wU AOA U transit Z sha |


a) Acrf ~Lf ^S


~T cɮ a c
Milky Way Galaxy | j ~a 400 AcAUS | AAO Acr ~^ 100 AcAUS galaxy cɮ | U eZF @TQ OA\Ur AcAUS AvAUS c OA\Ur quintillion ! AT@ Ac H Q ~T@ cɮmS ~gc Sq j @ cr ASAEO^gcq cU s |

~T ZAa Hubble pAcf ~@ w transit T | ~wTf 5 @ 7 ca ToFq j ̮kf JWSTexo-planet ^S R AcrKH @B d @c | qAToF NASA Kepler w pAcf T w ZJB @B d @a | jq r@q F ew @B jwc ^ Sq |

Exo-planet ~ kQ R wgfgc scQH BSF Av A@\S @ \UZ @c | TAv ST "Terrestrial Planet Finder" (TPF) |

jq @\ oS rF ha —

1. ~U@ ~ɦU @ (null out) BɮAB w cHɻUf AcrKH | jq cHɻUf oS ~cUA c intra-red ~U @ |

2. w cݨTU @U ɮAS@ AcrKH


Av
Space Telescope (T1, T2) iS c cpmA R rASw TITAI ~U, sZS mSf ~cUA ~U ATH @T | jq kcfH BAv ToF@ kL (d) Zc kQgc T c |

6Se aAc : TPF j vAUm swU ~@r ~cmS | oS: ~cUA ~U AcrKH ToFT H swf cɮmS jce H AmA ^S c j @B |

A@aAS ~w Galelio Mission iS cpmA w Ac@ gU @ OS BSF | ZO @TS BSF T nw R pAcf T@K iU sF SR | pAcf @a A sc T H s AO ~cUA cHɻUf sF cO Ay Z s U ~T cݨTU ATS wF (CH4) AmA | jq wFɮ mfgc ~ABS cɮ @ S @H ɮAS@ An BU R @cS q ~q AH [CH4 + 2O2 --> 2H2O + CO2] | CH4 j AmA TH @ s ~T cݨTU nTwq CH4 PA ha — s j@Av oS l ha H-An | jq oS ɮAS@ AcrKH ToFT ~A k w H ~gɮ R s |

AXf A@\SAv U Space Interferometry Mission (SIM):

~T ZAa s-w @ ~Q@p k, AcrK sA g @T , R gc jq ~\ s U Arv Zq s S | ~O jq c: H ~Acgɻc R AccS Q AcrK swf jce ~T ~S^S oS UQF | j ZJB c @ j@Av U ~cmS ~F^ kQgc ASH @ | j ST Astrometry c ATA |

SIMj @B pAcf T av w, s @Q Zc @a S, AmA qAʩ Sɽ @ |


B) H @


w 150 ca H AcK PcAS@ ~^䰻pA wgf̩ O ~oF gw @ s :

1) 1859 j ̴qS J "On the Origin of Species" ST sw^@f cq HfBw wgf ~Lfݩ AA @S jce Natural Selection An ToFT BfcBw AccS (evolution) cFZF @S |

2) 1944j E. Schrodinger "What is Life ?" cpTU H m c^ PcAS@ AO^ SS A@ ZU S | j gc c T rHf AcSf HL ~@p S jce ~wwA LAH @S |

3) 1953 DNA ~S ~@pA R @pA ~Acy ~SAc@ HL Scsw kOS @ | w ~orNf jq AcS nTcoTS ~wwA Acm@ |

4) Tn O0 Axvw SfO STU U BU @AiS c AH | @Av @Av qm: AcAQ ~r^ BU ~S mmkgc sS T^cU r^ rpU gc JA s | j oS AcrpU @ rpU ~cm AcS@ cU "phase transition" c "cooperative phenomena" | T AcR "phase transition" Wv —chaos @ synchrony | @Av @Av (ިdK) BSA@ @ U U ~U BUS SgS (oS AQHkc jAr rAU), (ިdK) AIJAIJ @ @ةS (cq TAU TS c BSF !), ~T chorus wS R SO U, a^ R TUS ~S^ synchrony H | j@v AU ZU cI s s jq ~ɩ ~EOs TScA ZU kQT THU@ @ AcިUT SQnU@ AcF | SvB TBwA@ SpF @\S ATU s AcS jq rZ | cf^S gK

SpF cr ^ U Acf TH,
ްsw AW BFATf cABU O^ gS |
      c SpF HcS   Accr Acr Bw OS
      sw sw @U @U   U U,
BAvU (complexity) R AcrpU (chaos) ToF @ @ةS R a^ B^F TkU a AcrK ~cm ~U R cm@H ~EOs sAw | @@Av H R s | ~F^ i electric resistance-j ~@Am@ ~cU (superconductivity) ~Acyp AaU 1911- | c O @H cI wU @xvT LL ToFT "Cooper pair" qU@vS BAv swU SpF | LASER-j ALL@ AgA mS @AaUS ~qSmvqS 1917 U | wcKHw ~U @AH@ photon @ذT @ذT cɦ sR Z ATUU 1960 U | 1924 U FS cɮ R ~qSmvqS Bose Einstein Condensation c AcKT i cm AcrK Bɮ ~cm ~Acy @AaUS | 75 ca A wcKHw Z ATUU |

Bfc@K ToF c ɮAS@ R PcFA@ e@ة R An ToFR a jq @ةS (synchronization) s HrA TkU | w q r@ AcS jq rZ jwha | s Acr Aco, eQg ToF @ @ةS o c S, ݩ ~crcf | (H m ZS : Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos In the Universe, Nature, and Daily Life by S. Strogatz)

~T ~wq ZAa M Bw jce pAcf TkU ɰS jAaU T B^ ~gF^ THAc@ esw jce supernova O AcmH U, s ToF H BSF BSf TH cvq A@a ~SR ݩ m䨩 AaU cf ɮAS@ gC w ZU BSF | pAcf wiS R Prrc gfKH ~Am̩ r^ c , ~ɻl ~B @ 4 AcAUS ca ~w @S SArfG c ި@ب jce T U gkwg ݩ sw sw o ɮAS@ An ToFT jTS ~S PA U (RNA c Bɩf @S AT@ ~S) s Aco Uq ASB ATkA PA @ | Virus, bacteria R SS oS j@@Kf Hf, s cU s "complex, adaptive, self-replicating systems," pAcf H qA Aegw T BL @a | c c sw , Tn 800 ATAUS ca ~w c@Kf Hf ~Acgɻc jce AccS ToF A BU mU ~@r ~AoީF Acm @ ~B w Ua jq oS oSF ިy g / ~T jq c^ |

c I-It @Av pAcf H Z e @a | Yellowstone Park-j بv^ BU, Antarctica- ATrfU i, TdgkAT, T wgf̩T mS, jTS A@ TAv U ck s^ ~^ j@@Kf Bfc cɮ |


I) ޮe


ޮe cU s s ~B ~T BAS s Acr H s cɮmS eZF c c c AcAUS | s AAmA @S
"Cooperative Phenomena" sF ~F^ rpUcXo cm jTSA@ H mkH ݩ @AiS S |

j s^ jce ~k gAcKF o ~T cɮmS a c Milky Way- ~\ j@v ~er exo-planet ZJB @ a R c | jq a AAo ToF ^ gF ^ HfBw cS ݩ cAr S | A@ا cp AAQ, ~ɻl a 400 AcAUS jce ~R SS oS 100 AcAUS wFUA ~T OqR c ~wwTf gF ^K Zcq c jce eZFR ݩ ~S@ | A@ا j mA@ kL jq cAr s Ql ~U AO k @, cɩɻ ~ɰS SR Zcq @AiS | aɦ Acr TZ ~A AcrU, ~T ~wq ZAa | q US gFAU ݩ QHmf | q k\U swsw, ~U wA UR j@cq B S |

ZFɩST ް˻Ac Enrico Fermi r @AaUS "Where are they ?" j ha ݩ ~T Acrf ~Lf @\Sɩf kL jce TBwA@ T US gF QHmAL | c gAcKF ~T Z c S jTS @R cU s S |


w^-kO@ :

[1] The First Three Minutes; S. Weinberg; BasicBooks. Also, see, 'Origin of The Universe,' by M. Turner, in Scientific American, September, 2009

[2] Chandra: A Biography of S. Chandrasekhar; K. C. Wali; The University of Chicago Press, 1992.

(cɮ-45, jAU, 2010)

~Ue@H : ~SSF r

jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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