~T^ Oncf_(gTH)



cfr@_gOs_(@Ac)



Acgɮ_OMof_(@Ac)



@cf OMof (SFɮ)



c_Oncf (@Ac)



@FAS BfR (~cpA)



TA\U@ S (@Ac)



TfSQf__(~Scɰ)



ScSf_cS





MUTf S_(@Ac)





fO^_c_(@Ac)



U TBT (av)



ǩc_ATn_(@Ac)



PrUS_@
(avw\)



gK_WKU_(SFɮ)



co @_(@Ac)



AUɫT_TBT (SFɮ)



BU Ae (@Ac)



sro OMof (w\, @Ac)


cɮ c@mvɮ (kH)

@Ac

w\/TFOS/Sv@

SFɮ

c^/BfcSf/mpA/AF gK/~AgoS/qAɮ..

Arr/A@r

Books_in_English




AST (AAgA/AgAA)




 
UZ@ AAOA




~U@ - @U@ɩ AcrAcFU AcS mɩ@ɫ ަS , wS ArZaS "wfAcS" fArQݩS | ASrr R ~Ar r@ ~@rcHf @U@ɩ cf^f AcrS @aS | rZ ToF cq ަ, wS rS, aAc ~J@ qFA |



~ATg S J ASB gKq jZS Ar@w-cɮf SAvBS | ަrS ~BTf, @U@ɩ, A\Uf R Ar@w-q | ަ Zɩ aAc ~J@ H BSF ~S@ TvTrq ST @pک ~SA\UAZ qU |



~eTS w sɰcި an | @FAUAS c-jA wU-j @T̩ |



~A^T wFoF B^ coTS-j | ަrS coTS, S^ި R Arcި Ac.q. @UB | ~ɩ @Tkn Tcq-cɮf | @Ac aɦR AcrK gUcɮ AcK U wS : cf^f, A^mSf R @Sv@f A@U |



AS BA cA^ ~dHg ަrS AA^ @UB, @U@ɩ, AA\U, R ~TA@ -- AcK : ް˻AcF | ~SA@ذS o
at&t Labs-j s |



gcgkA gOs B^ wAU BU j@ wT | cUFArQ @U@ɩ | j@ PAS@-j ecA@ة @Tcr @UR ~S@AS U r wQި j@ ~o-@A O@Aem @T̩ | UZ rZ ~cUF -- w\, @Ac, fO, Sv@ AUZUR cO A AcK av w\ | qA A^ an -- jaɦR @@ wS rS R BAS gK ~oFS @ @S |



Ofɮ gOs @U@ɩ @S |



a^ OoF Acv B^ @q cɮf | A\Uf c R, jZS RT Scm FUAB AOA@l@ jce ~oF@ | cq R TFwABS ަ Sr, ~ j@ c Sr U k k r gTH | wFUwɮ, ~TBS BU, TFɦwm, gpA jZS m AvTc@v R ~ɴv TAU |



AO^S @بШ ިdAU aU | ިdAU, S^ި, ~qj~q- BU Z OA AvA@v Bwɦ @aS | A @FAUAS @ @U@ɩ AaS | ASB@ vRF Bw Bfc^ gqɮ Ac Z OS | jTAS W@بS ~ @بJ | c ceU AF wS Sv@ AST @ U AO iR wU ZJ@A cS | ceU aɦ ~SF gK cSS @ ަ | UZAUAZ ~gFɮ Pީp@ Ao@ R ce c^Ψ ~m ASdH AHT |



@U@ɩ @ AO |



cBFA gOs-j B^ R c Ri - 24wH PSAv | mvFAvAv@خ-j an | jZS @^f @ O@A @S | Av @ @Ar T c An@ ASAT a-w\-U@@ AUZaS | qUAvS AcUAvS @Ar a cq | Bb@ ST av BSF j@Av An@ (PnTA@) OUS c^Ψ ATU | ~ɩ O@A̮kn @U@ɩ |



RAB ~f cݮ ~v | b@ A̰c ceUr cFe@ q-mU AXf rAH anf |



wMf B^ cS ; c R Ac | mU vS, @UB Xg | r TS:mAL@ | jZS cɮ cmvS | @B J@ UZ | rZ UZ d r ca cݮ @ | cmvS cA T j@c ceU UZ@ wɤf ~AocrS c, wɤf ST UZSf | BAU ɦ w ST qeAB UZ ~AocrS c T ~ j@ AS | @Ar cq Ug R pG (@Ac, Tv @rSf), PTnf (av w\, Tv), Pcf (av w\), jce ~ ~T^Ϯ ~F jU (qeAB @Ac e@US, AgxvB , AS q@ػ) |



A^U gOs TAH A ~S^ cAUrɮ @ @Ar a (2008) |



A\Uf R cmvS ~S@ BU ZR q^SfU r jZS ASBAcɮf |



~qAg OFvAB - B^@T cq BTrި | pArfU @B @ R SS oS cq ަ gUcS | ~@rcHf BTrި AcAg^ ~UOS R ~SS ASAT c | TSK@ gUcS R BS j@ ~TF @MU ASB@ ZJB sF @ cU AS TS @S |



@MAr@ S r @@ػv-w AcrK AOA@l@ UR Sr @Ac, a, cq ަ | S˻ @FUqS A@ AcrAcFU ~oF@ |



PAS@ J c^-ASc^ a @ش l Z S cU TS OMof w\ AUZ d @aS 2002 U ~vc T | A@a w\ J aR a | AcrAcFU SpAcS ~ ATA-~oFS-j TmvA @ v OUS ceUr | J c qha AUZc-AUZc gc @ wwA @ T @vS | jq UQF jZS AAS b@ cq S w^cF ZJBaS |



S^S AUZaS avcU @q ; Ԯ^r An@ ɩ-@c ~ɮ ZA aca c | j@خT @U@ɩ հF mvvTFS R հF jAS jB @wB ASAT AUZaS | Z ToF cq ަ, wS rS, cS qFA |



SfUɵS c R SfU cA @U@ɩ | qASgAAv ~ @FAUAS @ T@AS@U qAASAe-j AjqOA @ jZS @FAUAS @T̩ |



˻ Oncf B^ 1970-j, @U@ɩ | Prrc R P@r @va c@ި R cFU | cFU S c@ @ r @ @U@ɩ ~qj~q- 7 ca ަrS | O^q, vA@R, @FAUAS R @U@ɩ qm O@A-c@A | 1998 U @ @FAUAS A@S | A @Ac rl TZoF, ScSf cS R ް | rZ wScBS AST Av @ ~̯ @ ^ ZR W cS s^ |



U TBT - B^ 1953 U | wgTxv ~v @UB @ r @aS | UZAUAZ d 78 U @ | TU: ^r An@ Aq d | ~R ~S@ av An@ UZAUAZ R ~Ue@H @B @S | UZAUAZ R ~J@ aɦR ɦ O rZ | @Ar w^ ToF ~a : J-TJ-ZJ, v@ Zwr R ɦ sZS AQ |



BAK cS B^ @U@ɩ | AA^ dA@ 3 ca BSF s AaU | ~S^cB sw A ~c "OS m OS ɦ |" ~: qSA-j kn gcSr, cFU, US R mvFvwv jZS TA@ػS TU@ Omv | AST, aAc, wS ~ AF ~w AcK, c ceUgK U AcS, wUwAU R A@R ~A Sq |



H @ب @U @AU@v jSABASAe an |



dS c^FoF B^ R aUcU @va wAU BU BcUv wT | ަrS @U@ɩ | AR AAB Ac. v@. @ jZS AxvA@ ~Aخ Ac @B @S |



cAS Oncf @U@ɩ AA^ @UB ް˻AcF AS aS | ABg cFe@ NABARD Acgw @B @S | A ArUe @ cAU @U@ɩ jaS | @Ar w\w^ cS Ag cA R ~SFSF w\ |



Tf gOs B^, mU, @UB ArTc | ަrS A\Uf R ~TA@ | cTS ASBA-cɮf |



PrUS @ m AaU ް˻AcSf R | jZS hOToFAT@ mU ް˻AcS ArQ@ | B^ 1952 | ArQ@ة O@A jce Sr sR av بvcU AvT AL AS wTw WWA d 1980- | il @q 1991-j knɩ UZAUAZ | T w\ Lr cJO ~a @ɮ r-j | @Ar w\ e@US T^^ ~FUcT, R @Ț ; SFɮ | c^ e@US ceU gK AT @ | A AcK : SFS ^ R qAɮ |



rTf@ WK B^ 1983 U, ް˻ AcS mɩ@ | cTS c@A cFe@ @T̩ | rZ UZAUAZ, aAc U ~ AUT Z | T @Ar avw\ WU, 2003 U r An@ ; 2006-j 14-A aAc qA Axv A@ػv-j AScAO AaU, 2007-j j@Av FAOn ASrS AAaUS |



ɦ BU ST ~ɦU BS @ S (sTS re@ BA@KS c @UFHBf-~S^Bf) | jAv @S cp wɤf ~c eW STR | ɦ BU BASa : "~T ɦ T d @ BU T rK @c |" jq e@A@ cɩ ~˻ AS ~ A@a cU sha S |



BU Ae : B^ 1954; JRU wH, ~oS BTɦ BU wArTkU wT | ceU gK-AF jT,j (@U@ɩ AcrAcFU) | cFe@ @ mhac AS cTS A-U^ UZ@-~Scɰ@ | AA^ R qeAB @ ~SkA j@Ao@ w^ ~a | WɦۮR @cFn ɰ@ | @^f @ empA-Acgw AAS U cpA aS @cF wcKH˻ | @Ar cq ToF a m-:m, nبrAcXo : BJ-@@ @cFScɰ, AUAcXo AcgT, ksɻm R SrU, BB A̮ qFA |



sro OMof ~B^ @U@ɩ -- hOToFAT@ UA ccS-j, AA^ @UB @ rS-j T Acgw mɩ@ R mɩ@ɫ | qAS ~Av ~F ~F@ɴxv Ag @A @B AcofSgc UZUAZ | T UZ @Ar 1993 U |

@Ar @Ac cq aAv : HFeA (@Ac AQ@, 1996), ArAOSf@cF (@Ac AQ@, 1998), ARAcS (T, 1999), AO^S w\TU (@Ac@, 1999), ~c T (~S^, 2001), T Bɩ^ (AK @rS, 2005) | 1998 U @pAcɮ ިm | 2006 U ceU ~@AT ~AS-SfU@بT c ިm | @Ar ~SFSF cq, av BSF cAUF | @ArcF cq AXgAK@ cmAcr (@Ac R qeAB ~Scɰ) jce T A@a j@v a (w\ޮe@US) |

cq ަ R UZUAZ aɦ (sv ~ rZ Sq, @B wa) ~SF rZ ^c^, Uq-Jq, A gK R ~SFSF UAS gK OO |

(cɮ-40, 2008)



jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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