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Books_in_English




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~ZFS TkU @S @\ | q AUZ A, cmcR ocA@ gc ASTfTS @\ | jce, T ~ A̮ mSR @S-S-@S @\ @@ة | j A TSF T ~gF ~@ ST | ~gFɮ s AAS@ة ~r, SS - w^cF ZJB Aw @ Amoɻ BSS AUAZ | AcASTɻH J ~ݨo | s TB sZS ިfgk ATF, Ac@, AcgT ~ɩ jce AAS@ @a TA޻ @A Tɰr R AcS ~prF BU TAa T BA s AUZS@T -- B۩ gC BSF cɮ IJ@بAS BS Z | ިS c @\@, gK R OS OUTS eA@ FWɩ @ | j@B cɻv @AaU dH gc ; sXoAAmA R ZUSSw-j WvAaU AcASTɻH Acm | c @CU TUv (2003)-j s WvU, ~ZFS ̲ OkHAcOkH wa |

qA ~cS WKH r»-AAn F-wA gcɰr TpF AS w հr@ s aX-wf r@mc UZ a | cUgc gɮTS ɲA@ AAmA @R @SR A@a ̲s Sq, ɮA@ةR Sq | ~jc TpF Wv wa SF, @AAS, ~ZFS, cS | A UR ~oAS@ɫ ASTɻHcS cɩɻ MJa wa AS-ި ceU AF Ԯ@A TU | OS lc ASAS cwɮf ia q | jq ccF ~JAo, HFS @ب@ R @SrkSF ~LAcmpA Tɰ@ TZTAZ ScdH gOs sS \v ~JAo-@ب@-cOAS@ Tɰ@ A SS AAmA T@AcU @ OaS | @CU TUv j AcS q ia FW AS^S R A^g | SqU ^g R S^S ST OAU ASAra ATF R Ac@ A -cF-@ASgU jTS QHm ASAQ ̩ S | ScdH AcAOn l-Bɩ ~^cS kQ R ~PAZ@ Tcr@ cFc @aS Acoef Acm@ T | j AEOT AcZFɩ ~ZFS gc@ B. AAU ATU T^cF TS : 'If the literary work is within itself open, heterogeneous, a dialogue of conflicting voices, it is also seen as open to other texts, permeable to them, permeated by them. A literary text is not a thing in itself, organically unified, but a relation to other texts which are relations in their turn. The study of literature is therefore the study of intertextuality.' (1980:523)

jq s i@pA ASBq g c A@ ZU sR, SSoS eWKT m Tcr jce ~^fS ~^cS w^S : jTm @ة As@ R rKɰ @CU TUv ~AgSc gc AZa | @f cUc jq OS@, SFɮ-i OAU oJO A Ai@ @ A S | ce, gc qha @, @TU@بT TBT sTS gK@ ~nTH @q gK@ pArfU FT BSF cJAO U OAaUS, TSq ~gF-ATF-oS BfH cmc@ ~nTH @ ScdH pBSf cmc@ ިSBfAc @ OaS | s-A@a Wva cS, Tmq A@\S TA@ | @AAS AcSF BA ަ ަ @CU TUv ia j@ ~ScF wUTU ~Agک -- j@T BSS a sAR ~ɮU i@pA@ ~SQH rɮS @a Ai@pA | ~, @AAS AcSFɮ@ TS ASTɻ@, s TkU ASF @r@ ~ɦU @ Oa | ScdH @a cmc ATF ~n^ cUq @ A-~nTH @ aɦ ~SF Sq | aɦ AAS@ @A AcS mf ~cUcS@ AeɮS-OF @ BSF c@A cS@ sv c rAH @ OS ScdH | J cOS ~Ssf qAɮ c^ vFAB@AT@ co Bw @ BSF-q (p 85) TkU @ASgU rK@ fQH R U @ U a | ~jc gK ToF cn ATr wa AZAm, ~A̮Ar ~Ar c@gA, ~gK | @ZSR @ZSR TS cAI c cqU (Georges Bataille, 1897-1962) Bwl @ i ja jqc |

AAO pAcf@ ~AAOf@p AZ cc | jv mĩ ScdH H@MrU @SS i@pA J @a sXoQn sZS T@UfS A̮ nSv @ AchaA̩ TAB@ Amϩcm R BPSA@ A fc cF | @AAS ASF sv@ب ̲s ~gɮ R c, ScdH AaS | A@ا J ~AgAScr ~^cS ~^fS w^S | cmc sZS S AH, @ASgU ha^ R @rF A aɦ ~SF @Sgc T@AcU @ @ gcSAS ScdH | ~eZF p^ @ ~ɩ jq j@Av ca ASAha :

UA v@AT@U @S Uv ia cI U jq WvSAv@ oq jw c | jZSq a gqvFU | j cAr cU cH ~a | @H ~AUTAS Zcv wUq wJ wcTxv SO c | F TUS @CU TUvj o@ @بUc S | ~crF jQH ASEOq v wa s ~T ~S^cB c A. A. jT. ~c pHTkU A@ec WɦgC @ew @S TU@q ZO Oq S | A@ا ASB ASB, ~S wB @ش sA ZAOS Ri ~T A@aq @ Sq | (p 85) U A@ ASBm oS SF TpF WKH @aS ScdH ? ~ɮU, ~cS wa rFR | ~jc ~ɩ-~eU ~SKި AcSF AAS@ SFA@ة@ @ZSR cFAcXo @, @ZSR vFAB@AT@ co Acm @ZSR c AcmH fH @ hO FZFSq ~T @a MJa AhaS |

jq FZFS jk ~cAo wa s me UZ@ ASB@q vOFFU - BA ASaS | AcASTɻH ^ j J ASBm esBS | jTSR gc A, ScdH @MrU J UZ@خ@ ASB @ m^ @ ASaS s J i@pAR @ASgU ~c p s | rT Aha T ~ShaAv jq ASAZ AcrKgc UQHf :

԰r R r TZɿBU @ ~AgA^ ASq @CU TUv d AaU A@ا w ~oF c A@Amv a T gk Z @@ cU cowTF U | wv cFv ToF TSK @S ɩ Sq | T sq jU ZSq SB ަU s rK sZS (OUc) cU @ ZS cAa (OUc S) | eroS R q ~rg@f S | @A޴v Tɴ c @Fv @شq cJAT @a S, Xo, gqɮT jce s An@ j@ j@ @ orf ha ZSR @بO@O @ش bFTSAT @AS | (OUc S)-j O ce bUc S, vUc S UR TZQ A@ا (OUc S) ~crFq ~TSBS@ | UZ@ ToF ZS Zcq @pA@ gc T s UANo RS U U j ASEOq ɰ@ ATS | TAHR | jq AS cɰSc T ɰ@ ce rKTr ~w q UZ@ A@ ШAUA B aJ A cUU - jv A@ ~T c UZ ? UZ@ ASBq UZ | ~Ac@U q mQ, ASgU cSS UZ - (OUc S)| ɰ@ @cUA U OU@ c S OU@ -- A@aq j@ waR aJ s S | j@q T UZ@R | j@q @T wJ c rUq | F Tq FTf | ~ɮU @H @شq BS S | U@ ~S@ Tq ~vTAv@ qAve c Rq Bɩf @S aU ~r AS ~AcSf gAcKF A@ ~ʨAU ASr @ | A@ا TSK o gk ASr TS @S Aha Sq | ~coA̩ ASA jgcq ASBS BU @a, ~U ޮ wFɮU ~U AS@vm Sfc ~Q̩, Q iFC A^oF gTFTH A@c@ AS s | ... (p 84)




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@fcUc j@, ~wwɦ i, Tm ~ AOUAT s Ar ~Ar BUAcgBS Z TS S | S cHS S WvS S cS w^cF @S A@a A cXo ~a , jTS TS S | sZS @A cS ̲ gkUAi, Ar\ @pl@MrU AS jTS i @ sq jce ~S ASB@R ~^g @ OU | TSK R S-TSK A̮ ATr s m , ATr sR S ~c | nSv PAZ@ AcSFɮ gC OMAO s | s Wva cU TS ~ɮU Wv S ; cS TA-Aco@ Aw^ @v ~^Wɻ Uwɩ Acm@ mS kn | @ASgU Ok^ STS Z q ~T @CU TUv j AAv p | prFTS pAcf AAv ~SK@ @s ~c^ TH @ A Ok^ PcfF R PSBF AcrpU @v AS o, gK OAU cFc R TSF ~@\@R FZFS @ a | jq AnAv ~ɮU AAS@ AO^-@H R ~gF A ~ZFS@ TU Ao | sS AAS cI OS, ~OUݩS w @ @@Av ZA Rq s S | kH @iT@q oe @ A OS ScdH | jq BSF AAS gKɮem R SFA@ة ToF Amϩ @TS waS | U cS AcSFɮ @ TAB@ R ~TAB@ gcS A@ec c@cFc A@ػ OAU BUAcgBSZ Ta wa | TSq cmc ~ ~cF gR | j@ @\ c FxvA cUc ɮA, R Sq @SS ~^cS kn cOS @K-@K ATr wa empA@ R BPSA@ @ةpLc AcdXo fQH m cd |

j cZAS (M. M. Bakhtin, 1985-1975) jq T^cFAv Zc ɮA@ cU TS : 'Carnival is not a spectacle seen by the people ; They line in it and every one participates because its very idea empraces all the people. While Carnival lasts, there is no other life outside it. During Carnival time life is subject only to its laws, that is, laws of its own freedom. It has a Universal spirit, it is a special condition of the entire world, of the world's revival and renewal, in which all take part.' (1984:7) A@ا @CU TUv A@ jTS SS ޡ PA @ a s cZAS@A˩ cBSfS AmA A@ec BBfH Bw ިSdBfcS R ިHcS c ? jq r @SR AXo R @AiS | c j j@بrAv m-AcAha^-Aha sA ~AgAScr A ~SH @A U jv TS AS ~Aco S s ~ɰF^ AcAB @ASgU ~c ASB AST ASBq PA @ ASa | ~, jq ~ɩAcrpU Bw ~B ~Sި B cF a Tw FcA Acr AcAr AmA |

jq A^g A@ @@Av c@F m e@ة s ceU ~ZFS@ ~TkU AcASTɻH @ BSFq AO ha @CU TUv : @ɩ A @vTШ ~Aw wwA sha | ~ɻl gc A@a Wva | cm@ TШU Jq @ Z v@a ? oU U @f U ? @بA @v S JO A A TШU A@ cFv aU S ATU j@Tq AaU j@Av gKF | ~Av U qS BAS WUv ~@r U ZUcAU T ZAU SOa | ~w ~S@AU SOAaU | A@ا sq ިAUr jU ~TAS cA@U gFASr Tn ASv qU | ~ ިAUr sZS gca cɦc A@ cɦc S, SS @S @ha BA ަ T^gU ɩ JO Ai@ q T ASv ZAUR TOA@ XU B Uv wU | (p: 7)

jqv@ب i@ ZAS@v gFcO@ Zq S | A@ا j@v q J TS c s jq c ~ɩ~˻fS c@AcSF Tq AS@p wa cmc | ~, cOS A̮ ZU ASa A@ATAcɰf ASFɮ | j@v q ScdH BASaS WvSAv WvAaU 28 ~vc 1999 -- o AZv TS Z c | ~w @ c BS s WvS jU q AAO AAv wJ-TS S cU @S @H ~a A@? (c) jq s ASA AZ cU R U, jR A@ا UZ@ H@MrU ~ | ~AcrɮF R ~ASrF@ AAS AcrɮF c ASA @ OS S ; o @ gSv@ب @ i@@ sLAO ~U~oJA A@ AS s OS | ~rN cFc knɩ @ AAS gK @A˩ ~AgBɩF@R FS BASaS |

nTr ~T TS ^AO SF-̲ cAgk \US- WvSAcfS WvS jce ̲s-AcfS @-̲ | q @Uf^ @cF Acr̰ R F^S c^FoF ~S B s ZAU-^ ~SS-@ | jce, Ai@ j Aީ Accɮf ~S^cB sɰ@ ~S^ AcS- |




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~S^cB An@ AcrU c Ae-j UZ @ : ~S^cB ަ , SqU AAa ަ | j@ j@v AOTAv @v AUZaS ScdH ; jqv@ب cAXo ~T a s AAa ަ Oq AaU ~aɦ Z ަR gU | (p 8) @CU TUv-j @ R c gkAT@ a | q sɰ@ ~S^ AcS a a Tv jce gKR a kQ TO | i@ UQ @S, OA@ة qr me @@ ~T oA AaS TFAB@ AFAUBT c ^BAU@ cmcc kn : gBcAB OR FTAЩ jq @@ةUf @ | ... TFAB@ A@ jq c d ? (c) A@ا @ASgU TBB cF U بAv empA@ ~AoީFcɰ@ F R ɮF@ A^ @ s @p ~Ag, m s : j q A^o TS s F@ئ nTq ~mS w U ST jq ATU ~ɻl sɰ@ ~S^ R ~S^cB An@ -- ~S^ g ~S^ -- jA@ ASa@q gcr ZU S ArOAXo JAU S WTv Rq a TT ɩaAS c ~T TS jq F@ئ@ @ش sS ~S^cB An@ T TS AS aS @Ai @ ~O cU S gcS | q ecɰ R AF TA^ s AS ASݩq cAB OUa C Uw sR Tvq Uk S | \v U s | (c) SF ~cS kAO @ BSFq A@ j@T AcOS cFcY U ? ~c, @v j@vZAS WA A AUZc, ~cS s kAO qBSFq AgK jq ~Tɰ ! @S @AAS Sq UZ@ @SS @AAS@ o Z T cmcR Sq @R | OA@ sZS @v AmvS @S @A˩ 'splintering of history') (1996:135), cFA R TB AS˻@ة cXި ASTBTS -- Ok^ ɮF@ S-AAmA R Acm rkHF A^g OS @ T@UfS aX A̮ @ػ ~S WpH R A @r @aS ScdH |

TB R empA AAv Qn sZS ~AoީFc AckKH R Q enTH Ok^, -M TB-BPSA@ cFcm-cMAXo@ TB ASB ~^:rkHF R q̩ ~LWɩf -- @CU TUv QɩfS @ASgU A ccF S@ WAv @a | ~S@AS ~w Aww U@O BT B qAUA-j s UQ @AaUS, sS c sBF ScdH A^g @ػR : 'An empty shell and the most fantastic sell-out, a random collection of notes on crumpled scraps of paper, gobbledygook, a tangle of slippery eels, fragments of nonsense, and at the same time the attempt to found a scholastic system on chaos ..... confidence tricks in all shapes and sizes, the jokes of a man who has lost his roots; blind alleys but paths everywhere -- no ends but destinations everywhere.' (1938:34)| BfcS@ sZS J ZU cU TS , TZ Ag Tc^ ~ -- cmc @f @AAS-q c @ | Acmc ~ @\S SwA@ @ب@ sS AKo@ Ri ZS | cA@a sA S@f AcrpU cU Agɩ @ HUffS TU U ToF HUf ZJB AS S @S cFAnTf @@ | s-B^ swl Ar@ئfS R ~@rfS, ~oAS@ةcɰf sɻ A j ~ OcAU A@ec BAT ~@\ ZJB S | ce 'fragments of nonsense' A PA @ S kOSfS TAfS S-@AAS lc-T | AAv m AcAha^ ~O ~TWgc ~SFSF-p ~Sha UQF @A w^cFfS sn cS s AScAha^ snq UQF | c A@a rK ha @SwAU c j ToF @ PA sha @ذA |

U ASAXo @ ^ s S ScdH | gKR ATAr A S AZAm-Z R ASOU ~gK, lT R Ar rN, qeAB R AA^, \U ްF R aT-qA ~o-ZFJO AcSFɮ | ~, ~wwɦ cB ZS rK R @M@, FA R Fv AcAOn gA | sTS, q ecɰ R AF TA^ cBS AS@ Ac̽ @U @fgc U s , p^ j@T : jq U @f cm j@Av AvA@U @خ U AT: Ac. @. ɮ j BfcS | WvSAv ~S^cB An@ @STq BA۩ S | (p 8) jq c@gA, cU gU c@Oɩs, sS 'And Brutus is an honourable man' j ScdHf emH | TB BSFq TB a @R @R, A@ا c ATAU @CU TUv cwɮf F@B s T@UfS TB AAv A@ fQHT rK AcXo a | jqBSF @@ gFgcF ST RR @SAS | v@ TSK ST ger cFcY a @ZSR, @ZSR c O AO@AT ATr wa | sTS : AT: Ac. @. ɮ, AT: Fxv, AT: A. Ac, AT: rxv | @ASgU U ia j rAr of^S i@ب, cf^S ST AS ~ɮ | jce Ai@ j q ~A R ~@pAnT U cJoS a jgc : jZS@ i@ ZhO R Uc a | ..... ~T BSUT s AUvA jrvANrTxv UZ@@ @f @ | ~B sA @S UZ@ ~S^cB@ ZO @f prF c gc ~ɩAߩ R s@ | (p 10) TTA@ AF-Bw s ~LAcn OUa, @ a @ cUcS S cUq ScdH jq ~AgSc A^g A@\S @aS | ~ q T@UfS BPSA@ TB OT ~cTkUFSR J A ~nTH UQF | mgc cS jqc ATU-ATr j@@ wa |

p^ Ac U o s jq ~erv@ب : jZS @ UASSf ASr j@ ~w- sA q AaS s U q ~S^cB R sc | ~T AOA^ AXo^ jTSq R ce r s ~S^cB An@ R TFABAS AT: ~S^ ~Uɰ, q jq @Q Ag^, A jS j qFA a@ w w J@ ~jc j@Av@ Z @ o S @U ~SFAv c S | ... c j@ S cU co ~SF c s ~S^cB S @U TAT s @BS cCAU UZ@ TU iaS JR jv بU J Ri oF @بU S | FA@S s | cCAU ToF A@ا FA@S UZ@ WvA Sq | oH U wɦ A@ s Tɰf R T Av Ag۩ c^ ̮B ~TpUU c s AUZAaUS FA@S UZ@ QnR Zv sha,

ASB Ac TI AcA@H |
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wa cUFZ AhaUF @Ar ||         (p 10-11)

jTS A^g ~ɩ-gc m:mk, meAn AUZS-@MrU خU, cU TS UR ~ɮU A@ا A@A\ީ | SqU j oS \UZ ~^cS Ac i@pA cc cFcY S ; wF PAZ@ة 'rupture' jS A S a JOAU ~ɦU UA@ @ S qr | j@ cU A ScdH 'planned violence' s-A AAS ^ɮ-g cmc T@AcU @ OS |

@@ mBA@ ɩ @SAS : ԩ (cCAU) ABSw ~gFɮq U ~UU JTJ @ QHq A\v Z J @FUS | jq FvS ~-cCUf ~ɻl Sw, dr, BTɻS c cA qFA ToF Z s S | (p 10) A@ec ~B @U@ɩ sZS cqTU ZS ~S^ cAUrɮ-j TS cCAU sgc fW UqS Uw ZU TS ~ ! jTS j@Av SSAgT prF sA cf^S ZS U J A@ Ar ~S^q S ! (p 11) cS TSF jAw (sAR @s j jwS-AaS cU A@a Sq), AXf Aha d Aha : j@v T gU @A AT S AT ~c j@v T ~̯ q | ceU j j@ TS AF | 1999-j rK A@v q j@q @U | TFAUwSFxv TFUA R OUAhOn lc HcɰF rK S cɮ O R cɮ BUS TT cB iU | J@J@ A@a A@ئSF, @Ac lc, Tɦɻ ~ AcU ad v@v@ wT | jqc A S A Acrc US AcwU R cFwq | cB @SWK SS qeAB ca ~AcT @@-gQH AsAw A d UR ~OT@ SA@ ~SFA@ Tɦ Sc | (p 13) AAv Qn gK AcSFq m s @SR oS wU-w\ c AccH OT@ DA S | Or pAcf @ػ QɩfS gc As@ pA AchaH WvSq @@ ~A^ | s Ac@ @ASgU ~c aɦ jq An SS Tn sw @ s S, @CU TUv B Ok^ ~PAZ@ة oSF | jqBSF cɽ -- Fɩɦۨ ~gcSf mS | TSK-gk-AZ ATr jTS o^ΨT s sA R sMA@ة ck AScɻA |




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~ZFS-AcfS jq ~ZFS ha AUA Ai@q BSS a : j jTSq Bwl sZS Or cA@a, Tmq ~OS, ~O gfKH AAO | WvS-̲ s ~c^ wa, @f @f WvUR Wv , qc cF ~c w^S w ia jq A^g | j@ ~T TS ~Aco S : ceU AF Fɩɦۨ ~Acgɻc j@ T OT@ WvS | qAkc TS OfS jq AF o ZU, SO w ~cUfU sc ɦ-TH OAn ~AmL wMc WKH @aS Fɩɦۨ ~Acgɻc wMc SA@ g, ~T SA@ @ @J Ri j-AcK @SR Am AXo^ ~T jZSR Sf AAS | @Acc ި^ A. j. jce TS AnTAn@ @ػ s ~JO i@@بU jAS IUAhaUS jq SF s a Oɽ gA, cOTAS, cAUU, cwT BSS, @Ț ~Os jce ~SFSF j@ cpl cݮ | cݮ ~ɻl J@@R jq AcAOn cS AcAOn gkAT@ ASa !

j ST@H @ػ j@v ~w sTS AUZAa, q ~Ssf q pAcf jqc cA^ eAr ~SިAUR ~Aocmc j@AoީF | AT@ Acm sTS @ ~gɮ R s oްf f, TAS rpUAcfS rpU qAʩ R q Xgv AAmA Oɽ gA TZTAZ q ~T | TAS SUS jce cOTAS | gc s, @SR ceU SF SA@ sZS T AAO Aha ~T, ZS qZS a ? ~Xg @s@U@ AcrɮF @ U gA Ac ASA ASQH cU R ha : 24 ~vc, Acc, @U jTSAv-q AaU | (p 12) sɰ@ ~S^ kc-@A˩ AcS sS ASwkb ASrST | jq ~ rf @Ac ɮF@ FɲU jce ިS ceU F-SF oH A@a r mS | nTr cAUU j s cS jce ɮF@ mS knq @ ~SH @ i@ @RɩU ErS MJa sS |

c @ASgU AcrK gc @v ASBS Fɩɦۨ T AO Tk : Wv qo c @ | cJ A@v ASBS cAaU j@BS bFC, j@BS cJv-Tv, ~ AS Sc@ ZUq cI s BTZFJO | ---- jq J@ cU SR s@ s, cJA@ ASBS U Fɩɦۨ s wS j@Av T^ cU jce SSoS ~SS c Z e cFw A @ | -- bFC TUv U TS | R U J @v @ | cJv-@U-Tvv U A. j | ST j@Av qAm ~a Av mrU | -- ASSc FUv U @Ac ި^ gv | j Tv R ~Tɰ wJ (p 17) jce jq Ok^ ɮF@ j@Av @Ac FU @M@q oSF | mgc j c@-cFc A@ec mS ~gK dLkH gkAT@ ASa | j ~SH @ ~T MJa sq gA R cOTAS @ASgU |

c ScdH PAZ@ة a^ @S S cU ~T SS sɻ MJaS ~w wf @ ~cH @aS pf Aha kOS : AwA^rZ m Bwl @ KA Bw AScɻA | sTS AScɻA AQH̵S, oSwU, T^@بT, ASTU, Zw^S, ZU R ZFɩ-~ZFɩ r r AAF@ s Ar BSF AUZS | jZS AAF@ Ar sw | av @cUq U c AvSAvS | c-T UR ~w | avcU @ q AvS, cSAU, Ug cU, @Uw qFA AwU ~@Uq @J @J Ri | q Z s @A޴v ArZa c UhOAT | Acw ce-j chO J-gJ, Sxv-xv, cJvU A wv jTS @f OC-cC c^ kH ~ScA | avcU @q j m˻ R ZhO ~SF @S r Ar S | (p 20) ^ Sq s jTS ASQ R AS ~S OO TU S | @CU TUv @ ZS TS OUTS BfcS ~^fS ~A AcdXo ~ޮfS sXo WKH |




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cS SSm jq sXo SS oH ~AgcFA ZAa sAR @ASgU mgc ~Ssf Tmq aXsXo R U A cH | O@A ZU ^BAU@ cmc @pl-@MrU AcިUgc cFcY a s j@q A@ATAcɰf cHR OT Xgv TH | ScdH BSS, Acg^ i@ TS @@Av ~AAO rN ls @ػ r Bwcq | ~jc A. j, TS, R ި^@ gA cAI : O@A ZU sZS d ZS Oɽ Fɩɦۨ j@ Av s | A@U, ɽ, Tɽ, r@ c sTS Fɩɦۨ TUS TS OɽR TUS | ~T Ai@ cAU @q U A S | (p 22) s jq rɫ cAv A^g TBB R oS Q cTSS S , ި^ AcAOn ްF cFcY 'comic interlude' Ac | j AvAS Ac B R a @Ac R @Ac-~UOS A ww AZAmR : jq, jq U @Ac | ̮ ~O, ~U ~O, wgf ~˻ ~O, OSTS a^ ~O | jq S U ްF | ~B@U @f s c cU aU UZ | @S @@-@J@ب cUq Sq | @TS UwU, A. j. |

- gc c | BSTAS ްF , I @ A@a cUc S | c, TS ha, ި^ j TSv cI UZ AS | wa, a Aa | (p 23)

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- j@ @S TS Sq | Fɩɦۨ @f ? TSq Oɽ @f Oɽ U Oɽ | c jv@ب cU A B Uw Oɽ @S BA Sq | c Ai@ vqT S U A@haAv c Sq |

- ZU U S |
- c @f @ | ~B@ AAU U jAɦ | ASr A wU, B^gkAT- Ai@ @f hO U@ rU cI a S | ~ j@ Scq j c @v qB @Ac @f @ ? ~ ~ATq c wШ T ~ c WTv A sc @S s J cA ! (c)

ިS oS cU s, @S-s-TS Sq jvq TS | A@ec, FJc T j ~˻ U Ai@ -q s UZ a ! FTUv WSR cU A, 'There is a method in this madness' | O-wU gF aXcr ~ Um ZS BSF j U A@A\ީ ^뫩 R c@^ A-~nTH s g g cA BU c @ v ZU v AZAm @ o^ UQH | (p 24) sc oFSoH c ~cmS w gc JO AaU, ~cSTS Wv jce s-A@a ASOU ~cɩ AaU, qc TSsw @^ i ~ @ASgU An | jZS -q Wva | q ~R TS , @CU TUv ceU gK ɦcɰf A-~ZFS ~A-AcUAc ~L@r | ~crF ɦ sTS AcKAcfS Ok^ PSBF, jq A^g Ai@ TS S | @SS OwU M̮TB R BPSA@ TB@ @@ةɦ T ɮF@ TH @q j ~WAK UQF | jq UQF kH @ BSFq A- gK @ rUfS ZA wA Ta R a | sTS : TTU, BAU, @c, c gCS, gvTS, ~ɻ o, ZO KTAS, AOAve @خ, v@ w, O@Jv A @ɩ @Jv U, Twf OUS, AUAv@FU O c, SATSrS -- jqc @د @ AS TH, OvS, crf@H @ TFAB@ ASF OUa | (p 24)

Fɩɦۨ Oɽ gA joS AcAOn eU ToF A T@UfS ~BfcS SSA@ U | ~, ZSq A^g SS Tn A AB j@Av cpl, OfS R f J @@ s ASgBU TSKF@i @ cU | j@ Ai@ ^BAU@ cmc ɰS cU A S @SS cf Aha AU ^AO Acmc kno Ac j AS^ ~SwS @ASgU FWɩ c ic | ^ OA@ qS T rN @ cA WUv ~@r oR wU @S, R j@v j@v @ m c |

i@ Ac ~T @B U jq ~wrU jUTU R AcrpU cS ASFɮ @ ~B wAUZJAB ToF A Ai@ c @ jAw sR | ~crF OAU ~˻ Ai@ cU A@a @f S, @CU TUv ަ jq o^ @q s | ScdH sS BS OaS cI U@ s-BS ^S| j@Tn Saɦc^ i@q UQ @cS ~SɰF^ OFeAT ToF @ @ UA@ a gUgUq b@ e@ة | Ac rK i@@ @بTf AS@ c S AS@, jqc TAST J@ UQ @q c : UZ@ TAB, ZUq, FJO Uc o^, AcrK ~R@l sA Ai@ @ U @U@ AT@ @ j@ qg S, S sq | ~oAS@ ~ZFS Zcq ~S@^cɰf | A, jq R | j@Tq jZS OUc | @ @ UZ@ S@ @c @H UZ m Acg | i@ A@ا Bw |

(p 28) ~R cr ZAS@v Aha : ~oAS@ SgU j@Av UgUAv U SS F j@Av WU PA @ s ToF ~Ao@erq U U wFJB | ~S@خT ~c F cU jTSq j@Av rAS@ rAS@ gc @ SS-mv wFJBS OU @ s jq gvS@ TTkUFcS TS @ ~S@q cT@ s | @CU TUv SM@q iFe SOc | (p 153-154)

jR Ai@ s AЩ c Aco cU A@aq Sq | ~a AcAg^ T c@ R R cAr cAr A@a | j BSFq jq A^g A@A\ީ | c c Oɽ R Fɩɦۨ ToFTAH cAS O˻ Aha @q Uwɩ sc ~c WvS Ac@v cɲcO@ Accp U A@ec cU s@ AccH ~^Wɻ @ U -- A gc ~SH @ aɦ wF^ Sq i@ | s s cU sc cc ; jTS @S Sq s Aީ c S | @Sv ~c^ ~ @Sv BSf -- j ToF ɩ @ sc S | @CU TUv ST@ cBB @ZSR Zq A ~Aocmc ~P BU R @بr W@ Zc, @ZSR c ɴq T lAQ c TrkSF | qAɮ U j@ I@TA AU@ (p 46), j@ TS AS swl M TB R BPSA@ TB ~wrU AcfH sR UQ @c ~T | @ASgU U ASEO ; A@ا r A Sq @R | ~ZFSfS s jTS ~^fS UAcAS @pGw i , A@ BS AaU ~T ? cpXo cݮ A wU -- jq ~A^T c@F ArA Sq @S, Sq ~R A@a qrR | AcިU S-j ToF s ̨, ~U^ S-j ToF TAAcfS TA | joS A^g cCAU i@ ~Agک AaU S | SS vq ~oZFJO Iv-v cAU jq cɲcO@Av AcA sw cAU (p 195) @ j B S | jce ԮkH ̮mɰS ZT qU- jTS AXo^-q c ASq @f @ ! ce AXo^fS @cU @q @CU TUv @ cAXo i@ Q @ UT BSq ||

(cɮ, T, 2005)





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