cɮ c@mvɮ (kH)

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w\/TFOS/Sv@

SFɮ

c^/BfcSf/mpA/AF gK/~AgoS/qAɮ..

Arr/A@r

Books_in_English




 
cUc A@ ~ @U AA@ !

S^S



[1]

AT AS mU @ Aq cUU,
-- av@, av@, BS , ~AT S Tɴ A@ A@ @Aa !

av@ R ~S cqv c^ @AaU AT Sq | jq Tv B AT ~, AS SS BFB Zc AS | o TS A SUq OU S, ~S@ A̬R @ AT cfL | ~ T T ZAS@ ~Acrɮ ATAr A AT @pAL ~ wAS @U @q Sq | oH J, J, q SA@ @بU S, wgf ~Ssw AS AT c cU ic, AT Saq S | q jq T rS TS Aq |

@AS @q AT Zc j@qv, R mU @A޴v ɮ OU ha | jv s j@ذT c sR AcUQH UQS, AS AT @S ^q Sq | AS AS ~^ rZS@ c AS wa AT ~S@, jc T T ~ATR @A޴v OUc | c Tɴ cFv co @\S cq AaU, ~B S TAK@ OUS ~ l o S |

~B@U c mUq @A޴v rZS OU wa, ~S@ Bw SfO ɮ @q | gc ~c@ Uw ~S; B^ A@ jAw OU | ~S co @A޴v rNAvq T rS ɮ vS Swɰ, cv, vqT TArS qFA @\U@f @بr ATr AaU ZS @A޴vR | ~ ~B jq AS ATR Tɴ Rmɰ | ~crF av@ ~ ToF J@v s c, c ~M @S J@ ~a, jvq TS O S AT | T c lv Sɩq Sq, av@ @a@Aaq | ~SR ~A Sq j |

AT jZS rco@ cݮ | A@, @S, @, @c g @vU g s Or Ncq@ | mU @ A jq ~Ame vv O @ | cA ~ c @a AT rTU ~ R Pos ݩ c j@خ @ S, A@ا ~S sɮoF O @, AT q av@ cB A |

c AT r q Zɦ, ~S@ S@U | j@AS j cUU, -- ~B@ ~T F@rS ArAZa, gUw F@rS cU @S ? gUw A@ ? gUw sɮc U cFZF A ~S gc UwU, AF , oH
(common) F@rS TS @S cɰAc OZ S, U ~TS ST @S ? mU AvO j c r A@ S @ BS | ~S ~ ަS j@c oAnfA, b@q cUS, r @Uq AB c |

AT ~B@ cr PA q ja | mU @ Aq JOv UAO Za jq ecɰ A Aq Zv i cc cU | cUU,
-- @A޴v @ PA @a cU ? cU c ?
-- @ cU, ~FUS vFAe A@ ?
-- oFl, AT A@ha BS S | ~FUS-vFUS S, @FcB |
-- ~q ! @FcB ! jq ArAZa mU ?
-- A: A: A: @FcB S cFcB, A: A: |
-- Ĩ aU !
-- A A ! TB @AaUT, j@v w\ cU S av@, AB, AB, AB |
-- w\, w\, ~ha rS, j@v ZU ZAU |
-- A@ ZU ?
-- Jɦ, mU ~ Zɩ ~a S, OM@ OM@ W ~J@ ?
-- jATAv@ @A ?
-- JF, JF Rvq, s AS ~ j@v ɩ | rS ɩ AaJAۮ S, ި Zɩvq ~S, TIZS @ ɩ ZU Sc | ~ A^U ~ c ~AS |

SS ZU Sr AT avU Zɩ ~S | Zcq l, j@c SS ZU U ZS sc, c^ΨR J sc | ~S j@v A@ vS cU, ZU ASTU IAU ASU TS TS |


[2]

-- H @ A̮ , cU
4231 X 77 = @ة ?
-- jv TA\vq, AT ZU cUU, jv ZU S ....|
AT jq Ov gUq OS | ~S @S ZUq o ZU @ S | o o SS gcwf ~UOS JMa | BFAAcS, S ABRwA, S ASa@q ̮S | j@c AT ZU SAT cI Aw ~m ~ OMAO | Zɰ av@ LcoS jTS gCO AT Zcq ~Tɰ AaU ; cA ~ c ~S@ cUAaUS, A@ hav A@ | c ~S BS AaU jTS c @ S, TS TBF US ~O PA j@ AcrK @ݰ, ~S^@U ަ۩ S ; AT cA@ AA^UvR v cUq cq AaU, R s @S ....| sq@ ~B@ AcK jc Am Sq, ZU oq @wB @UT |
-- Jɦ S, ZU c d ha, TA\vA@rS @ | @ cU S @ة U | AT @wB vS j@TS H @ @ | jc ZU lR @T S | j@v q cU,
-- jv j@ذT qAB, @ S ,
325787
-- A@ @ @AU ? Z |
AT Zɩ vS AS ~S OZ AAO ~J@ |



-- c: gA , j@ذT qv a |
AT cr gAA AhaUF بAv cUU,
-- jv ɮ RS chOR c |
R @ TS U, RS ~f ~S@q k |
-- ~ha, @FU@بUrSv jq@T @ AUZU S |
~S AT Zɩ OM@ a@ g U Z |



AT ZAS@ Ac T A@ cU,
-- JF , A@ا.. A@^, ~Fɦ @ T gU s |
-- Ai@ cUAa, gU s | gU c @S, @H ~T sw @ ArAZ, ~T rZS @T @, sTS q @Aa | A@ا jq ZUv j@v AST U, ~ Zɩ o j@v UqSq cFc @ sc | j@v UqS s OM@ W ~a U o S A@ c cJ A@ sR sc, A@ا R c SfO UqS sR sc S | j@@v OM@ W JMa ZS A@a UZR s, ~c A@a UZ @U TaR U s | jc AZ jq AST o OUU Hv @TS @ @c, j@@c v @ W A@ A@ ~T Ai@ @c A@ UZ s |



-- T ~T
1 ~ 7'j A@ @Aha | j v@ TA\vq @ 7 R s, v AUZUT j@ذT SA@ W |



-- jc
3 ~ 7 H @c | jq @T @ c@v H @ AS sw @ c; AUZ ASUT,



-- jZS sw @ c, ~c q v @ W Z, j@ذT S r W B\vv AUZc | T
7 ~ 0 ~Fɦ @ 7 AUZUT,



--
1 ~ 7 @ ~Fɦ @ 8 c | TBv U, ~wR A@ا ~T 1 ~ 7 v j@خ ZAaUT | c ZS H @AaUT, q B\v jAaU 7 ; ~ jc sw @ UT 8 | A@ , ASTv cIAU ?
AT jQH ASAHTK AwUAaU ~S @ ~ jq c OMZA ~US | ~@v O @ cUU,
-- ~T ɩ o j wAa , ~ SA@ sR Bw Sq | j @ c TA\vA@rS U rAr ~ UZq sc S |

~@vF r, ~S BS jv ~ɮa | c j rfwAwq cI AS | @S cF ~cmc av Ov @q o U | c TI TI ~cmcv@ qha @q o , v @ݰ @ ɮ @A AS c AT@ A |
-- Ai@ cUAa, ɩv OR بA sc | @T U ~ c ɩ SR s | c ݩ OM@ W j@v Uc A PA @U , sv OUq @c |

jv j@v SS @Sv, OM@ W A | SSL AT ~ r O ަU ~ɩ |

qFcAo ASTv s gUq cI wa TH @ @v cW TA\vA@rS OR-ORA Ov @ @K UU AT | j@v gU AaU, c v AAU ATv@, ASBq cU AU |


[3]

jc ZU @ ɴ | ~S cUU,
-- AT, U Z sha, ~T ASTv jTAS TA\vA@rS Tq, ZAU UZ @ݰv ~SF | o o Ai@i@ Z HU, swU AUZ wUq JMa sR sc | jq oH s @S @FU@بUrSq wɦq v AST,
1. @Kc F@ o ~\ A@a AO A@ TS R (~T v @ W j@خ ZAaUT) |
2. F@ o A@ @ c Ai@ AOwU Z jce A@ @Aa v TS Z | (
1 ~ 7 Tc ~T H @AaUT, ~ c sw @UT, @H o v ~SF AaU |) jq A@ @Aa v TS Z AO^v@ ST R s mvv (state) |
-- mvv TS AU, AU@Fq, wFɮ; ^ cq UZ ~a | AT Bw Sa cI wU |
-- AU, AU@Fq, wFɮR ASv ~cm, q mvv cU | jvR TSq j@v TwB ~cm, ~ @Kc T |

AT cUU,
-- R: |

c v AST AT cr gUq BT a TS U | cI wU r @,
-- AO TS A@ Sɲc,
1, 7 jU Sɲc, AO cUa @S ?
-- JF, jZS AO TS Sɲc Uq, c...sq@ |

AO ~ F ~˻ jZS sR @ Sq TS U ~S, q cU Aw TS ASU |
--jZS ~T v @ Z Sɲc j@ AS ZAaUT sw @ AO S H @ AO | A@ا sA v @ Z j@ Z @ r Uw....,
--- chO ݩ SR ,

AT IvA بv @v | c R c R A@ A@ , c ASިH Ac AT @q ~a |
-- Ai@ ~a, chO BSFq S ~@v B @ s@ ASTv | ~T j@@c o j@v @ Zq Zc | @A Zv Z wU A SA@ c cJA@ @@ W ~ɮUq OUc | U ~T ~ @K SS AST U AB SR s@ |
1. @FU@بUrS @ c j@v OM@ Z @v A | j@v Z Tn j@v @ Sc UZ c |
2. F@ o, o j@v Z Scq UQ Z c |
3. j@v o @ o s wU A@ @ c
(next action), ASg @c q Z UZ Sc jce ZS@ mvvj |
4. jq
next actionv c s Z UQ @ ha ZS A@a AUZ j@ W SA@ c cJA@ ~ɮ | j@v Z @ ~SF Z JMa wU j@ W @ @ ~ɮ c, cJA@ c S A@ |

A@ , r Uwa A@ ?
-- S: S:, j@ذTq S |

r Uwv TS MdK c S TS @ AT T IJ@U B |


[4]

-- ~ha,jq AST U sA j@v TArS @ ArAZ R s ?
-- TArS, TS s^ ? A@@T s^ ? A@@ cSc TArS ?
-- o @ش j@v cSc, ݩ f-wqS-cW-cqS AST q cA, A@ا cSSv @ | ~w Z s@ TArSv@ cI wU A@ A@ Uwc ~ TArS @a @ ~T A@ A@ Oq | TArSv oq jq OM@ W A OU , SA@ S cJA@ ...|
-- vFT sTS UqS o OU, q @T ?
~S j@v OT@ Ri, jq ATUv R Tq ~AS | AT B mU s vFT @, ~SR s | ~B@U q rS s vFT i sc @U@ɩ @, pAcf ~SFn A@ا jTS cB sS Zcq @ذ |
-- JF, vFT sTS UqS oq OU , TAS jq TArSv MR oq A jA@ @ RA@ | TArSv j@@v W Jɦc j@v ZAS, ަc q OM@ A@ UZ ~a, A@a j@v AUZc SA@ S cJA@ j@ W c | jq JɦS, Z, UZ ~c sR jq c U Ai@ @c TArSv ZS A@ ~cm ~a | jq ~cm U j@v ~wq A@ ST AAaUT ?
-- ~cm...., AU, AU@Fq.. mvv, mvv cUAaU |
-- Ai@ cUAa !

AT Tv ZAS@ ɰ IJA@ A cU Ri ~S |

-- TS TArSv @ZS A@ @c Ai@ @ cU sc c @v mvv BS Uq |
-- TS ?

AT jc ZAS@ A^S | mvv cFv AU, AU@Fq aA j@v cAr BAvU sha |
-- TS..., TS..., ~ha, q mU @ A A@ A@ @A̮ ?
-- ZAU, UAO Zq, T @a w\ AS, AvAg @vS AZ, TR@ػ @A |
-- | @Sv @Sv @A̮ v BU j@T Jɦc A@ ?
1. AT mU @ A UAO Z |
(A)
2. AT ZU s |
(B)
3. AT av@ @a w\ rS |
(C)
4. AT AvAg @vS Z |
(D)
5. AT T-R@ػ @ |
(E)
-- JF, A@ا TR@ػ cAr @U T @aq ro w\ AS, @vS AZ S | ަ c sq |
-- U j@T cU s A@, AT mU @ A j UAO Zc | UAO Z AT ZU sc | ZU j AT av@ @a w\ Sc | sA TR@ػ @T @ U @vS Z ަ cc | ~ sA TR@ػ cAr @ U w\ Sq ަ cc | AB AUZU,
A B C | C D ~ D E sA TR@ػ @T @ | ~ C E sA TR@ػ cAr @ | aAc ~J@U,



AT j@TS ASfQH @ ZAS@ Ac T T SɦU | cUU,
--
A, B, C, D AUZU @S ?
--
A, B, C U ha mU @ @@v ~cm | ~cm TS A@ cUAaUT ?
-- A@ cUAaU....?
-- AU, AU@Fq ~ ......|
-- mvv ! mvv cUAaU, ~cm TS |
-- gA | Ai@ cUAa, mvv | TS mU @ A q A@ @Ac jce @S @Ac jq @@v mvv@ Ai@ T AB ASq cU R sc | jc ~T A sq q TArS, OM@ A WWA @ZS A@ @ @c cU R sc R mvvU Ai@ @ ASUq |
-- o TArSv @S j@v mvvj AaU s ST
R | ~ mvvv c S | jq R jce Sv s A@a , A, B, C. D qFA Tq @S ~cm | q A @ B' s A@ A@ @A̮ ? UAO Z, ɩ TZ o, B TB ZU sɮ | A@ا TArSv oq OM@ A c qS ~ cJ j@ W @ | o TArSv R @ Sj sR ASTv U jTS | TArSv R mvvj @ A j@v Z sA a Z , U a Bw b AUZ SA@ j@ W sc ~ ZS mvv sc S |
--
a ~ b TS A@ jZS ?
--
a, b jU jZS AO, j Bw ~SF s A@aq ̩, sTS a Bw 3 ~ b Bw 5 c a=5, b=7 | a ~ b sq @ S @S, TArSv ASTq OUc | ASTv av @ UZ s,
R a : b => S
sA TArSv a@ b AUZ SA@ S Aw cJ A@ j@ W , U ASTv UZ s jq gc,
R a : b <= S
~ sA
a@ b AUZ TArSv SA@ c cJA@ @SA@q S S, U UZ c
R a : b * S
jq ASTU av @ s c TkU AUZUT, jU Aq A@ا TArSv OU OUS c clU R sc | c ~SFgc gcU OM@ Z A TArv A@ AUZc, A@ @ OUc ~ @S mvvj @c ިިA Ai@ @ c jq TkU Uq | TS....
-- A@^, ~AT c AS ZU sq S, cpA ަU ZUq S |
A, B, C, D ToF TS @R UZ Sq | TArSvR @T U, sA TkU S TS ?
-- q cAXoTS, q cpA ަU ZU sɮ S | A@ا TArSv j cAXoq Sq | TkU cq R j@ R OU S |
-- U TArSv A@ @ , j@ذT c@ , A@ TArS jv ?

AT ~c A wa q ~AT r, A@ TArS jv | TArS AScAXo ZAS@ Ac̽R | oq TkU-T JAv JAv TS @B @B c A@S R ^ | OU AST T AS˻ r wUT-vUT @c |

~S cIU jc cFw @ AcU c @ T ja | AT TS vS ~ ccf cF rHc S |
-- ~FUS vFAe cU j@BS qeB jq oH TArS @ gcAaUS | ~B@ ~T s@ @A޴v cAU, PA @ jq AO^-gcS gfKH @B UwAaU, @A޴v j@ذT wɦ o ~S@v jq TArSq |


[5]

AT @S Zɦ jc, OZ c c | q Tɴ A@ @A޴v ~ av@ jq ~JA@cA@ ZU TI s jTS sw, R gcq AS |

c A@@T AU wU,
-- TS ~FUSq cASAaU @A޴v ?
-- S vFAe cSS AS, jv j@v TA@ FS cU A̮ | ~ɮU @A޴v TS s @A޴v @, @A޴vj B TS @FU@بUv @ c sw-Acw-H-gwj ~ @K | q j@ذT cA@ ~-@K owU vFAe AST @ cJo AAaUS TArSv BSF |
-- A@ا @A޴v oq ~ @ S, ~T mU @A޴v aAc AZ, ATAB@R | jU ~ S ....|

AT j@ U OU wa vFAej AT@ wHSa@ @ j@c ~B@ cH^ @A޴v | j r mgAc@ jce r | ~S@ j@v b@ AwU U | cUU,
-- JF, @A޴v cq , A@ا jq c @B U j@ذT Ag ~a, @FU@بUrS ~ AArS ; sw-Acw-H-gw ~ A@a AXo^ SR QT | c @B av av @B gC SR , av av @B TArS@ @ rZS B A@a AST o o |

AT OZ TZ @ a | S TS ha gUq Uwa, c Ai@ Acrɮ ha S | c@ TArS M ~@v S ZU Tf ~ɮc S TS ha | ~w R l ZAS@ cAB SR @ |
-- @vS d ha S AvAg ? ZAc S ?
-- Rv ~c Z ɩ Sv T, ZS Z Sc | A@ U, TkUU A A@ @ s, cU S ?
cI S-cI cqR j@v @ av, AT Pvvc | ~S ZAr cUU,
-- U rS, qgS
(even) ~ ~ (odd) Sɲc A@ BAS ?
-- qgS ~ ~ B | RS ~ ~ v ha qgS |
-- o A@ RS ~ v ? , A, jqv, vS, vUg jU A@ ?

AT j@v gc AS cUU,
-- qgS |
-- ~ A, qg, gS, SqS, jqc ?
-- ~ |
-- gA | U Z sha, @S eZF sA q A ިިA Agq @ s, @S ATq S @, U v qgS; ~ sA ATq @ s, ިިA gw S , U v ~ |

AT@ BT @ j@v T AU ~S, cUU,
-- A@ Ai@ cUUT ?
-- JF, ?

AT AQ cr OSOS TS U |
--
23427 qgS S ~ ? q A ި gw S j@ ATq @, q ~ ~ 56874, q A gw AB ATq @, q qgS | ~ɮU qgS S ~ cU ~ B ~a, j@ذT SA@ AABvv A@ @Uq U, v sA qgS U ި eZFvq qgS ~ v ~ U ިvq qgS | sTS, 7 ~ q 23427R ~ ; ~ 56874 qgS @H 4 qgS | jc ~T TArSv@ rZc A@ @ qgS ~ ~ c @ |
-- A@ @, A@ @ rZc TArSv@, aAc jJ@ ?

AT@q jTAS ArZ SS A@a | jc ~SF @ɴ@ rZS c BS Zcq lf , @ S v TArS |
-- TArSv@ ~T sTS qha rZ A, R OUc TkU U Ai@ @ AUq c | s eZFv qgS S ~ c @ c v AUZ R c A OM@ WU ; TArSv cJ A@ @ ަ ަ j@W @ SA@ ~ɮc | c @v AABv ަ wU T sc | ~ ZS cU c ި eZFv qgS AaU S ~ AaU | o s@, ~T BS Oq
94383 qgS S ~ | A ZwU 94383 jq gc AUZ ASUT,



--~T Av s qha Uc gc s, q SA@ Rv OUq @a | SA@ j@ W @ c@v AABv بA U R sA TArSv ~ SA@ O U j@v ZAU W c, q ZAU Wv UZ c [] |

-- ~T TArSv mvv Q @ d @c j@ذT cJ A@ W @ | j@ W @ @ SA@ j sZS Tc ZS c@v W ZAU Aw o j@v cA@ @c | sA ި eZFv qgS U jq rK Wv TArS AUZc
0, ~ eZFv ~ U AUZc 1 | TArSv Ov mvv , Q, E, O ~ F | s@S mvv @q TArSv sA qgS AABv Z U v Ta A (TS [] AUZ ) SA@ j@ W sc ~ mvv E OU sc | ~ sA ~ AABv Z U v Ta SA@ j@ W mvv O OU sc | jqgc j@ W j@ W @ ަ ަ ި eZFv U j@v ZAU W T c | AABv بA sR T sA E mvvj j @ U ZAU W 0 AUZ j@ W cJA@ TArSv JA ަc, mvv c F ; ~ sA O mvvj AABv ب U 1 AUZ j@ W cJA@ TArSv JA ަc, mvv c F | TArSv ި OU a@v UZ s jq@T gc,



--~ sA TArSv@
94383 A qgS S ~ c @ cU , @زFv @c jq gc,











-- s
1j j TU TArSv, q cU s eZFv ~ | A@ , cIAU ?


[6]

AT TZ Z TS U, A@a AZ ~gɮ, A@a q ~STS, A@a cAI S c | c cR, @S q | cUU,
-- U jqvq T @A޴v ?
-- ~T s TArSv AS ZUAaUT jQH, v@ cU vFAe TArS, vFAeq T gcS j@T | ~crF vFAe j vFAe ST S AS, AvSAvS cq BSU ~FU@FB sTS ASB STq BoSf ST gcAaU | vFAe j cUS,
automatic machine c a-machine | TSK T ToF @FU@بUrS oU A@ @ vq B Aw jq@T j@v TArS AO^ ~ vFAej | vFAe TArS oH @A޴v PA @B Uwa |
-- @ cASa @A޴v, cFcB cSAS ?
-- @A޴v vq j@v s^ oH @@ rNf @, ~S@ ~S@ AO^ @B @a j AaS, @UT PA w r@ TITAI | @ j@BS ST @ sS ݩ, c jZS s@ @A޴v cU BAS cS vFAe TArS a@q ~S@v cFc @ a |
-- A@ا cSS U A@ @, AT oq aAc ~J@U @wB, A@ا Tɴ, A@-cɦ, mnfS jqc A@ @ U ?
~UOS jc OU sha, cmA kQ mkU / ~˻l A@S Uwa iU ޡgk TkU | ~S cUU,
-- ~Fq @U@ mU ~a S ? mvv
E s c , ަ cAc S ? @A޴v cSS w\ ~@AS c.....|
~wF AT cJo a@ mvv
C @ E OU OUU | Dv ~B cɰ ަU, @H C cr gA AwAaU | sc ~w ~ Zɩ rK A-l-l-a-n T-u-r-i-n-g cr cSS @ AUZ ASU | @U mU MTF, ~AA, pB, AcF @a cr cɰA SR sc |
AT Ac cU ZFA ~a |


------

F޵f

1. Collected Works : Mechanical Intelligence by Allan Turing (Amsterdam : North Holland, 1992), jce
2. The Universal Computer : The Road from Leibniz to Turing by Martin Davis ( W.W. Norton and Company, 2003)

(cɮ, Ac, 2004)



~UH:



jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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