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Books_in_English




 
Bf gɩpX - AURSɦ wS j@Av cq ~UOS

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rf AURSɦ wS-j cɰɮ jwSv A B - j cqRwA ~ qAS SFrSAUmv rl j gK O^ cɮ cqZS Zc ~T@ AAaUS AUg Ame-AScɮf ~T ~wBAT rfBwfr rT | cqZS ɦ UqcA mgcq UT S | c RSq ~c ZJB @ vwɮ AcrAcFU ިm@w @ ~AS AUS | ɩ \v Tq UQ @UT s SAB gK c^ c BSf @ ~T BS Sq | cq fW - - @T S | ~TBS ~ AUT - AS q@ػ ݨASgAAv @rS : q @Hq A UwU | qToF cɮ cqv g̩f emH ~AS AU r @ɲAS @ |

UZ@ SF q@ػ c@AUS @UB ~oF@ | @UAc AcrAcFU AQH jAr wcKH @^ ~oFQ | cqv AUZ RS cAS UwAaU, AO AAS ASB sA c gAT@ SR AS, @ة U@ @ cU a, @ة r s a, q AU@v@ب ަUq ~^B c | j-cq BɦɩAU A UZ S | wgf rXo AS UZ | j cc c-Ac UZ@ WAS Wva | q AS r sJ A.~q.j. Acr̰ (jce c Ac A@a rf@ɩ A) J RS ST @بlR A@a AvaS, @ASfR ަ U A@a jq cqq |

A@ا j cF | cqAv ~T slSAm gU Uwa cU j ~c^ @ j wU | ~ ~ɮc - jv o cqj @ S - A@av ~TR @ |

cTS sw cCAU SAB gK c^ @ةv@ب BSS Zc ~T BS Sq | ~T ASB S fAT | AXf TsXo g̩cK U@ ~Bɰ A^ cASf @ T gU @ BS (sXo T A@a ~Bɰ A^-@p ccɩ @ش @ش SAaUS ASEO, A@ا J ~T AAO AaUS S) ZS@ BS R wMcco @vq TS wJ ~a (jq @ASf BPSA@ U @ j c^ rK ~ɮc - j@U U@R BSS ; c j @ASf U@ BS@, jv c rArUf U@ qha S) | jaɦ j ~w Aިs sZS SAB@ cg̩ @ew gA Ac coS @ U jce ca Anިf @ew sZS AScAO gA R LLR J@ SS @U U gAL @ ްFw @ coF @ U, q T ~T ɰ BS @ ~T TS ~a (~T cݮ ZS r-jw ca) | @c AAS SA@ AA^ @UB @S qeB ~oF@@ OAvv @AaUS, BcR @S wAaU (wS-c R WvSv AS wcKH @aS j-cq - @ةv Bc R @ةv F TfTe AS) | SAB BfcS AS Av AgAR vR R s | j@v A cU ~F A B (@ PA ~ TS Sq - c Ac j O sF @AaUS, jv@ب BS ~a) R Ac. Ac. A PA A UfAe vqw | j-AvR RS sXo@UfS @B R ~Bɰ A^ @ (~Bf @بTl j ~Bɰ A^) R cASf @q cAr | RU @f @ @ R s ~T BS Sq - fgUF c^Ψ rf ATA ~T@ @A @ AAaUS |

fskK c ceU AST, ԮgKO^ ~oS@U ZAa | OUAhOn Ac l@K c^ T^cF @ Bw jv S | c j jTS A@a Sq s wS-c cq TU S | c jTS ~S@ @ ~a s wS-c cq Sq | U gKO^ ~LBfcSf @ R | ~LBfcSf @ wS-c ~crFq c A@a USAS | -j@ Bw (sTS gK @UB gA R cF ~K TZoF gc) OUAhOn ~FA j@v ~a, A@ا ocF S | ASTAv s˻ | OUAhOnAv gKO^ cUF@U @ ~̯ rK a RS T wA (1921) s^ |

A@ا jc LLR g R ceU BPSA@ ~@r SAB jce rl cc nT-S, @U@ɩ @޻rS T R ~\TFS JJ @B R ~ɰrc S, j cq ~T ~BS s sA j cqZAS ~AT S ަ ީT |

j cq oS gKO^ c^ - g mofS ewT vgAT@ | q q ewT rlO^ S @ ~q - c Ac o@ R gKO^ K@ Ac o S, ewT j@BS S AcR J S AO UZ@ Acmpgc AaS |

j- j@v @ ~T Q @ cU S @ | mofS ewT s@U qeB @ AcdXo, ZS g rɮ@ Ac qeB ~SFwU @q j ~UOS ~w ~ɮc | A@ا jq qA jvR Z sc s g mSf rɮS jce -en^ ~qS HS g qeB g̩f sZSq c O @a | v SS coF-co@ة BS @ة AS:^ (U@ cU, Ԯcm T, OAc@AiAv ~T) jce jq ~ɩ-mofS aS @ةv TlUccAB @ة, Ac@ػ ~crFq @ s | c g TBcFcm qA qeB rɮS@U j@v TU@ a s ~a, jv ~AT cFAw gc Acrɮ @A | j-c^ -c^ S - @Bq qeB rɮS Z A@vq jZS OZ ަc | v gU A@a S, c ASQR S |

UZ@ d @aS c Ac ~A AScɮ @ɰAU wT R SAB AީT S c@ AS | cAc @v@ r @ػ S c aU c^S ToFT - c^S @A ArQ AK @Tf Ac @pGSw @UB ~oFQ AaUS, @v@ ASB@ AA @S | J gq BS@fS @v@ gSr @UB @ r @S | BS@fS Acc iZU Ac gcf cf | BS@fS rlO^ R gKO^ c Aީ |

S c c aUq (c^S, BS@fS, sS R @ذS) qeAB ArAQة jce cq qeB ~ofS SS @B @ AA S | U qeB @ @^ @U@ɩ Ac sw ZS @q | BS@fS TvAUvS qSAvvFrS @ R@UA r @ @v@ R@UA d @S | @A A@U ް S | @v@ g̩f R qeB TB J AA AaU | qeAB empA ceU WAS jq T @q d | BS@fS Ԯc TSK AaUS | W c S | @ɰAU r cA J ި sw AaU | r U@ R AaU | ZS@ oSfTB U@ T AASR S R @ Tm AaUS | A@ا R cA AcS cf B^ s^ OU AaU jce jZS ~a - @U@ɩ hO ToFAc U@ empA Rv jZS Rɩ wa cU ~T oH (~AT ASB jq empA ToFq TSK) | ZS@ qeAB-ArAQة U@ @a jv m AaU s g (AcrK ceU) ZS@ emU r QA @a jce qeB @a J ~S@ rZ ~a | BS@fS ceU ~qSg F Ac TS @S s qeAB wHA^@ rrɮS g ްQ d a | rlO^ c jq q OUAaUS rK s^ - A@ا qeB @A̩ R Acrɮ Ac @ AwAaU BS@fS @q | d gKO^@ Aq |

A@ا w\ | cqv Oc@ A U, vq oS ~AT @ OqAa, ~c BS@fS A s c |

BS@fS aUT ST TfU, U, frO^, rlO^, rO^, ofO^, SfUO^, cU, gKO^, TAUS, Ag, @S@U, PrUr, ^K | cf j@Av ^S Arc T s | ~T w\ ~crFq jJ @U mS TS S | wS-c Aco ZA ި AU@ AaS | aɦ T gcf cf s Oɳca cݮ @ JqAnrca cݮ s^ qr ca SAv (wS-c AUZaS Oɳ, A@ا ~T Ac ATUa S) ^S c @AaUS v RS EOɩF OZ co Zc cAr i@AaU (~crF EOɩFrR j@r ca ~w jv Zc Acm@ AaU S - ~BR TA@ػS @FAU@ TB @S cA OɳAv aUT Zc j@v Acm@ @ S) |

~ɮU w\ rlO^ R gKO^@ AS | ~SFSF -j@BS gqj @ @ZS @ZS j ަ - jZS U @ | rlO^ To R l ɰ frO^@ aA wAaUS Zc ~\ c | -gqq AA^ @UB an | q aU @U@ɩ, BS@fS ASB ~qSg A@ػ | cAc g@^ Acer-r@ wɦ @q @v@ @ @U@ɩs ~ɮ UwU | 1909 U fEO^ R rlO^ Acc ~\ ~w R jUAwS T cA PA rK |

rlO^ mf ST Acgcf | 1910 U rlO^ Ac.jU. ɮ @S ɰ frO^ j@ ca ~w | rlO^ @v@ R frO^ @U@ɩ R@UA d @S | cc j@ ~ɰU @B @ T rlO^ RZS@ qeB AcO@ SB S | Jq BSA@S@ cUS aU@ AcUɩ Ai R@UA ަ, jTS @ OAU ~a | caU@ AAC TBaU@ AcU iS jv @H | 1912 U mf R FBɩ ިn ~r@@ Z rlO^ AcUɩ wUS | j@ ca gKO^ @v@ gSr @UABv mU @ AcrAcFU AXf mS AS r @S | 1913 U ~wB ްSH @ AA^ @UB gA S | 1914 U rlO^ AcU @ r @ j @U@ɩ R@UA d @S | RS BfcS g mofS ewT R gKO^ BfcS SS esw wS-c j-cq O ~UOS @aS - ~wq cUAa, cqv RS c^R |

gKO^ OAn PcArF ~w @q m | ɰ cer T qeAB ArQ R qeBB ~ofS @B @ A@q jwAhaUS | A@ا c Ac AgAw rɽoT R ToFR AaU (rlO^ wfSw @ ~ɮa) | A@ا gK ~\cݮ @ oTSwf S |

gSr mU gKO^ jAaUS 1909 U - c ca c | j ~w c BS@fS aU AaUS @v@ vmvFxv AS mU | qeAB gK @ qeAB Tc ZS J ZA | jA@ cA R -ATrAU | @U ZR TAv, n cc jU vAcU | T ceU aɦ cUS S | cA Tg̩ TH ަR | gKO^ ceU cUS, A@ا mU F ToF ceUR AaU S, g̩f AF AO @S R AaU S | gSr mU j c cU wU | ArQ@ cHfToc ~R gKO^ r R cAr @ US | T@ gUcɮS - ASB ToF TɩpoT AaU - cA بUwa sL ASS | cc cQ| @ cAr gcS, T @Ufg | gK IJ@US T A@ | T@pG @ BSUS | Acc@S^ ToF oT ~ c T^ J@ q av cq vSU | r @ gc ~̯ @US | ~S^Ti XXo US | mU TTr @a c ASK ZJB US |

cqZS AXf Aha ~T oH a s gKO^ sA SAB S S, UR ~T Bɩf BfcS @R S @R J cpl S @ | mU @q cA UA@ wT Aw @U wf c @ jaS | j@v aAv cA AU g̩ W d ZJBaS (R@T wgf AO^rfU TS s, Q @A˩ d R r - AS SAS) | g̩f R ݨf rSrm ަ ~̯ @aS |

A@ا ~S^Ti ަ BF^ aU Z @ U S | AA^ @UB c ~oF@ cq s g AF@ AOSS c rXo @S S - qA ~oF@ RvS c j@AS cUUS s wf@ sTS ި@U sc ~gF BA emr jAaU, wf@ gF ~U AAaU, TAS g̩f gF @ g a qeB R | anTB jq AS s AcQg Z AU, ~SFT ɩ US gKO^ | c @UB AJA RvS c@ sJ OAvv @AaUS, J ToF gK AaUS A@S c^ Ql TH A@a Sq (cf @U RvS c ~LBfcSf SA@ AUZaS cFv c^ c @ J TS Sq, c jc j@v U@ @a sA T Z @S, U ASEO AAS gUS S)| sq @, O an Ac ~wq ST A@S UAaUS - j-cF s @UB @ aA U, gK ToF ~SFT AaUS | jv 1916 U WvS |

gK @@ZS c^ TB A@a SgkA AaU, cMA Acgcf T˻S AaUq, T gcf R gK AOAS nU @aS, ASB TS @ BASaS | JR T AaU aU B ~SF A@a @c S | BS@fS@ cIc g TBaU (rlO^) ASAaUS Zc gc |

gKO^ @U@ɩ aɦUS A@aAS BSF | A@ا @v@R RS OAn AO j@q @T qU | @UB gA R aU cɮmS ~Aco Z cc @a @ RS j@v cA q @B cFc @ ~STA US | @A˩ ~mprF cH an @UB gA R AS gSr @UB @ػ STUS jce ABUS | ~ɩ c @B W ASUS |

jq @ ca wU | rlO^ R BS@fS qeB TB AA AaU | J R gq-OF^U F ~K s O @U@ɩ @UB @ةpQ rK ~cAo gK@ mAvr OO @UB ަc ~STA AUS - AA^ ަ ~ c U S | QA Zc U S | @UB rAS@ ATA gK cm䨩^ Q R AcQ cp @ cq re US |

jaɦ ~ j@v @B AgUS sv RS cf BfcS ~gɮ | AcrTsXo rKrAK T qeB @ g̩f an BSF T TA@ ArQ cFcm @S | gK j sw AUS jce ^S fH US | Ac. j. fQ rSrm T rHf r @US | jT. j.- RS qha AaU fQTkU@ TSmL ަS @cS | A@ا RS cc OqUS @pA aU AcU Aw ~q. A. j. j ަ @ fQ A ~ɮ@ |

cc c @ iU qha c ZS@ AS @T aUq @ة (c T @ gUR S) | gKO^ AcU wUS | ZSR qeU g̩f anTU SpL mS ASUS - R SS Aco BSF @ c @US (SpL R Ac RS mgc ToF AaU) | jce jc @R ~q. A. j fQ O˻ mS AS r @US | j @AcB vq ަ OU UwU |

jqc gK pf Ac | qeB @ ~ofS S Tv TqS O@A J TS @SASq AaU S | jc Rv TZTAZ Jɦ U | -T TSA@ X^ AO RS ɰ, T c^Ψ-c^c @a UZ AOAi O R s | rK ~cAo AAS U Txvw@ AOAi A ~So @US s ~q. A. j. j BSF cf ArQf AU@ @ RS ST A A |

r q T rc^Ψ AO̵S @B STaS | gK J @a r OqUS | AAS RS@ l AUS @AcB fQ r A ~ɮ |

jqZS gKO^ BfcS T Aha (jce cq AXf Aha) c X^ rK | ިިA r @B STUS jZS @ | cA A rlO^ R Acgcf cf cA mS ASUS | rlO^ ZS s^ ASB cFcq s AaUS | ^A @AaUS | @Aej cA AAS jq Tq @SS jce jUAwS AXf cAR jq T PA | A@ا ceU ~sw ~^US J SgA AaU | Ac AUS aɦ ~˻ ew @S BS AAS @SAS ZSAS | AS^S oSfU@ T ި AcSR J @SAS oɩm AS | ި@U Tq cq qeAB, cA Ar @ݰq OUAaU | ~˻l gKO^ STc m AS BS@fS R rlO^ BSFR PA AaU |

gKO^ cɲcq ST TL w^f cT Z @S | RS sA T o @fgc @B d c jce rK o @fgc qeBrɮS U c -c^ ZJAv r @S | RS c gK TS:k AS | ~Ae o mofS Tn S, vq gAcKF BSF Tm ~No, j @ TS J AXo AaU | RS ToF rɽ R PcGc gc qq AaU, A@ا @Ufg PcGc co Ai@ POSF-T@ػ S | wf @pG TT sq S - @eco J q AaU | gKO^ BSS s w B S ZU qeB sc S |

TL jq TPXo RS j@ S | jv cIc BSF jce gKO^ rc^Ψ AO̵S M TkU Z wS-c pf Aha T g BwH qA Oc@ AaS |

mH Z c s SAcer rAN rKrAK sZS g̩f Bɩf @ew mS , ZS v qeAB-ArAQة gU@ j@v ~UOSɮg Tn AaU | qeB @ ASB @ sv@ب mL-rɮS QT Aa v@ب gAC @ةv@ب Aco @ S s c r U@ @ةv Aco @ s, @\S cAr ZS sAS (rf SfU woF Tr T ~U- jq Tv ~UOS ~a - cf^S, ~T cUS wA wSAv jq qA j@v c^ ~a cU ~oS BSAa) | TS @ s BS@fS ASB qeB ~qSTUf AaUS jce @B @aS | mofS ewT @ ZS RiAS | c 1905 U qeB @ sZS ceU r@ gw gCc cFcm @US, q T BwH qeB AcdXo @rF Ac S (qeB jq AXo^ TkU @f AaU ~UOS @ BS c) | ceU rm Acc q T d jce rc^Ψ AO̵S ST ZS @q g ewT BA s | T qeB @ ~Ac^ WK (Accf cfH WK gq, cf@U AOA rf~Ac^) AcdXo s TTU ~S, ZS ~Ac^ Q @ AcdXo R@UA AO̵S @S | A@U Ac AA AAS ~wq AaUS | jZS @ Accf A SgA jce mofS ewT J FQ sw d |

g BPSA@ Qn w^fAB cr 1915 U | g wHBwH R g mofS @\S @ew qT @ OU | 1920 U ToF w^fAB gc @ew ppbgc AA : Ar@ rZ eZF ~S@ c | c jvR mf@s s @ew @B BSF BSf ~˻ sZS ~As, @U jTS A@a @ w^fAB Q c AaU S s oSf U@ AAS yTgBS S | @Bq @بAU-TB SpL @ @ew@ k @ AaU | ~T w\ j gc ަc A@a |

rc^Ψ AO̵S SgA sAR rm-ewT Q s AaU A@ا w^fAB wHBwH-O AAS kH sw S ; ceU @ew SpL J R mgc c - cA, @T-@بrU, ~ɰrc AS TLBf T@Q AaUS | RS pb oH AaU s mofS kH wH^ c^ ~f | T @q AAS wHBwH wAaUS | jce jv AAS Z S s ceU OKf U U J@ ~S@v TS A c ceU TUTS OKf A@, @H ceU A̰ OKf ToF TUTS eZF cO cAr | A^-TUTS j@ة @ew ~ɰr ToF - @Bq jq cF AS @ew kH T˻S S |

ceU TUTS qAɮ B S | kc ceU OKf TUTS - BAT A^ | ceU S ToF ~S@q hOcH A^ | hOrHf TUTS sJ, J ASB cCAU S gc ~c-@ػf Ao@f cUq TS @S | s cU S, TUTS J TB cɩF | @Bq j cF AO̵S @B @AiS coF | g qA j gc kޮA, j@ ~T ~B ިq UANo @ A - A@ا ~T w\ cTS jv@ب wMH Z s | A@av BS c SAB w\ ~ Ac | o jv@ب cU Z gU s ceU TUTS A^ j@ة jq ~gcv@ qeB ASB @B gUq Uw AaUS (jce v@ TAr H cU ASB Ai O OAaUS - K s S)| j- ceUAcgw jce TAUT Ufw T A @ Ri |

ceU-Acgw @H Ac qeB @ AZAaUS rɮS@s Aco : A@ا A^ AEOT-ceU R TUTS kc-ceU@ ~Uɰ @ qha j AaS A@av @B @AaU, j ^ @U co ~AcO c S | gKf TUTS cCAU TUTS SpL OU wU sZS qeB @ TAUT Ufw A sF @US |

j LR g̩f Bɩf @ew A^-TAUT PTnf cF ~wHf AaU T AcrTsXo T | @ػf qeB sXo c TUTS OZ oT-sXo ASAaU | jq AZUɬl ~^US g mofS O@ j@ @ @ew AZUɬl S OA cAS mf AaU | ceU AO̵SR A@a TUTS @pK@ S ɩ ATAU @B @ AaUS | BUU @ jJ ToF ST @ |

gKO^ sZS r AUS ZS AcrTsXo rK a | qeB r msL-rɮS ~Ao@ (s BS@fS TR ~\Acm OU AaU) cAaS Txv-c rɮSem | A@ا q ^ɮcɰf cc ST @ g mofS-@Tf o@ئR d a SS RUv ~qS ~R | j Ac w^fBf OS ~Ae ~sw d a | jq n ɵc @بZFɩ BUfSRUcw F@ R Aro fW Acr ca qeU BSU R F @ ~S@ SaS | jq T AO̵S gKO^@ ASB U ASUS | J T @TQT R lf U@ rc^ΨR sTS Ug U, gKO^R j@BS s˻ d US | cf@U gKO^ T cUS s rc^Ψ mf cɮ^f cfq sS gKO^ T mS AS ASaS (gKO^ BfcS T mS Tm AaU, ASB Tq S, T @Ufq S, rTɩp@q S, dLfq S - cAS ~AccA, cQ|Of gKO^ T BfcS T gc jqgcq AaU) |

rc^Ψ Scw gKO^@ c @B g AUS | J AA ceU @ An@ ɰS gKO^ R cU | cU SFrSU @UBj ~oFQ @B d @US | mhac@ cASf AOUS g US |

1905-j cg en^ ~sw ~^US T c an qeB OUS @UB ަ a AAaU | 1919 @ s ~sw ~^US d TL w^f SpL,, ceU S@ Ac AO̵S g ASAaUS | TR qeAB @UB a an ~sw ~^US sw | ArQ g S SFrSU @UB | gKO^ sZS ~oFQ US, ZS -BS gJv ja - aneZF s rkSF W | gKO^ ZAU c TS ަ c @UB ~-cF Ac @S | ceU @ @B ɩ | jq mofS-~^US BA۩ ~LrA R qeAB Ԭɦ @wB R AAS eAr wAaUS | ceU ^ɮcɰf aU jqT AO̵S ~So ASB @B c^ Z ~sw ~^US sw AAaUS | J jce ~SFSF ~swf aU cU gUAxvj s AaU, gK S Ac AcAr ABASK @S ̩U @S, mU @UB an, ~ɰU A@U qeB sAw aɦ ~So @S U cJo | ~^ @Tf Ac R ST aA AaU @ew U@ TI |

1921 U @U@ɩ qeU scB ~wTS T s ̩U , qcF BA۩ @ ~o AO̵S R gK BSq w S | R ~vTɮ @ɰ ~r U |

RS @c @ASf AUZ U g BPSA@ Acr A@a AcS @ cU c | RS BUsn ~w @q ~sAw ~^US gCS oAaU | s mofS ~rɮ A TLBf ~^US d @AaUS, J ASB @a e AaU BPSA@ mofS O ~˻PSA@ mofS A@ cAr WJK | O@ R J cFc W W jS qeAB @ cFc ɩ @ r@ cJOS c rF AaU - BPSA@ mofS @ػv AAS ASBR co ި sAO ZSAS | AO̵S c SAB TZ U@ ~No AaU r BPSA@ R ~˻PSA@ mofS | @pKH U SR O s J d @AaUS, @ ~w cUAa | BAT wA ZAr SAS | TLBf ASB TB BwH A@ TS AU v@ U ~Aco ɩ - @Bq AAS jcF @ k AaUS | J U ~S@ U@ BPSA@ mofS cU r hOm U@ mofSq cIS | A@ا TsXo Ar Ac Zc r MJaAaU | j@ذU U@ mofS Os @pKH-TB rAcpAXov@q c @ Z ~̯ @AaUS | cUFc^Ψ T^ @ @ gKO^ jqT ~Uɰ wU | A@ا TB ewT gKO^ J d AO̵S T ި BA S-ަUR J SgA AaU ި | SS Bw, J SS cp, TH R s |

qeB @ jq T ~sw ~^US ~r @c BSF w^fAB@ Pci@ @S | TLAB ~T^H ~wF @S | rc^Ψ ZS BU | jBSF Am @ AAS TLAB@ AOAi AUZAaUS | jTASq RS SpL ceU sˤ ZA l^ AS cU @^f @ew TSTAUSF AhaU, jq cF Acg ~ c wU | Txv-em U Ac Ar@ ~qSg g̩f AA cɦ @, A@ا w^fAB ZSR ~sw @US | @ew A@a S @ ~TSF @ OqUS | BU @ cA rc^Ψ R gKO^R SS mLrɮS gw AS cXoA@ US | ~qSg swS @c Q ceU @ew AU, A@ا Bɩf @ew co AU (TL @ AcdXo Jc QT Bɩf @ew cAS B^AS) | j Ac rc^Ψ @ew gAL Fw @US, J ިcS j@ wU q TAUU Sd (AЩ BcUU Aީ) ɰ@ @B a AUS | jqZS @ ceU mBAv B^ U | rc^Ψ ceU @ew gA wUS |

Ar@ ~qSg ZS gFeZF ca | rc^Ψ ceU TUTS S @ AUS s RS ~ofS sc O@A @c (nTr @rF), TUTS TSA@ eZF Sc O @ c | A^ QTrUf U@ Acɰ @US, A@ا jcF rc^Ψ w^fAB ~rfcɰ US | cA-TZ TUTS S sF mBAv ~qSg b@ Ay U |

~qSg R qeB ~S SS ~qS AcAo @US - @ZS ABUS, @ZS ABUS S | j@v cF Aco US | qeB @U@ɩ @޻rS g̩f gc cɦ A PAq AaU, R v@ cr ɽ @ ASUS | AScOS c U | AScOS rc^Ψ T ް US | rlO^ ~\TFS AScAO US | BSfA Qn rlO^ jq T ɮA ްQ |

@޻rS Of j@FAvg ~Aخ Ac SS U@ @ gc rc^Ψ OqUS gKO^@ | gK T ~A @AaUS, ~q A j @B a AUT A@ @޻rS O@A BSF ? A@ا rc^Ψ RS@ cIUS s j-@BR rc ~ | AS J mgAc@ @T@بrU @B ST ަUS | @TkAO s S U, cTS@UR ި rK RiAS - A@ا -sw U@ RU @\SR @ ̩ S |

mofS ewT gKO^ @SASq ^ɮc oSAS -- v@ AS AO cU ZSAS ; A@ا ^ɮcɰf rgA R cfL@ AOASq @rF rXo BASaS | RS T jT AaU TvTAv jq@T : r@ ~mcU aɦ mofS @ @AiS, A@ا r cTS AAQ v c S - rR cU, w^fBfR cɰ ocS | ~ BSwH BwH Ag^ mofS ~˻fS, A@ا vR cTS AAQ ި AS | @Bq BSc, BSBwH mBAv R @޻rS @B @q AAS AOl cU TS @AaUS |

qeB A@ا RS@ ~SF OZ Za cT | AS ^ɮcɰf rXo @S | ~fc @Ti U@ - s @S kH @ c aS (TA@ ArQ s^) | aɦ BU @ aɦ R ^ɮcA ~A˻@ sF @ @޻rS O O@AR R AhaU TUTS aɦR | @Bq Rv@ب ^ R AgA @ 1924-U ~c RS@ w @U | g̩Q ~qS cFAmofS mS AcrK AaU S (cTS g̩f R TA@ػS ~qS sJ ASB OZ ZaS - jce sv Q @ jr AAgU AUcAv sAS~S Z̰pA Z @ - J mofS R ofS r ˻@Fv Z cS | sr jq cFAmofS Sq, AcAr rɮS S @UR r@ ~AT ~^ mofS cUc S - ~ @T r AS O ~a) | Tv@, sJ RS@ TH ~gccr ZUr @ O @US, J U US S | j@ ca ToF @U@ɩ @ RS@ T^U A U U |

@U@ɩ BU @ @U @޻rS @wBn Z @B RS@ BU c @c ~STA R AaU, A@ا T^U OUS R -@B AAS mgcq @ SAS |

jc SAB BU qUS AS ca | cT @ @U SS AOAi R c^ ASB AO^ R T @r @aS, J AO^ Ac@r Z sc | wS-c SS XopA A ~UOS @aS | jqc AOAi cA TB (rlO^), cMA (Acgcf), dLf (cɮ^fcf)-@ UZ | j OAcOcH S @ jq T Av@ dLLkH WvS @ cU j Aha JA vSc |

T^U BUZS Zc mmF@ Bw AaU S | RU aɰ @i c A PA | rfɩ AScH ZS gU ɩ S | cpA IJvR ~ɮ | gKO^ mmF gC d @U | Tv @ AS Zc | BUBfcS AcA ~v@ ZUoU cFcm @US J mgcAXo SpL | BU @ةpQ @a wިB @ ~STA US o S, @ةpQ j ~A˻@ sF ArAR AUS | cCAU aU @AS TSH cCAU c ~S^ U | A@ا q @ةpQ Accɰ coU - v@ R ArAv J ZUS S | j Ac gKO^ j@v w^f-T@ػ ASUS : ~SrS d @US (jq c^ cf-@U AAS w^f ST @SAS @S ~T BAS S) |

BUZS @ةpQ Zcv O sc O @AaUS T | O U @S U S, wS-c @ m @ UZSAS | A@ا Zcv cA wU jce aA wU | @wB J mmF c^ PAS@ cUAvS c d @U | @ ~r @ coF U | oT@s K@ة T^U A @A ca 30 v@ cɦA gɩ US |

@޻rS ~\TFS rlO^ c c ZS@ qeB gF TPXo AhaU - rA^T g TU @ c^ RS T ݩ q T @q cU d @U - mofS ewT qZS RS ްQ | avgq T T AAS mofS BS A@ ɫ IJ@ UwUS |

1925-j rc^Ψ TpF U - AS ~S@AS @q ~m AaUS, q J@ J@ @B @ shAaUS | A@ا RS AoS ~w @q RS @ AO A^-TAUT @F v o d @AaU | jc v sZS oU, co c T QT @ qU S | @U@ɩ ިAv T f cA j O@ AaUS cU ~Agsw U | AS @޻rS @ ްFw @ coF US (1947j @FU@v A@AUe-j @ sJ BSS, J cA AO A@a TS ZaS ݩ - T w^fABRS@ c@ A Q S @U AAS Zc c ZS sS | BUU @ Acg ~ , ~S@ cAr ʩ @H |) A@ا jqT rlO^ wT wT Aw rA^mS O @US | ~qS @B FQ r @B BvU |

1926j rlO^ ceU ~qSg BSF JUS jce BU-@ ~cmq gq@R J AO @US | BSq AScOS AB ~qSg gF US |

T^U BU gKO^ ~mϩv d AaU cBT ~ AB - A@ا v cɦcA UwU, cU cɦ UwU | RS@ ~ BU Z Acްv @ UANo @US - SF (AcrK @ rXo rS) cSTv R SS @f @ | gK@ cU U s AS sA r a qvBUF Aw mmF ިSdXo @cS cU ArA S, U RS@ a R c | AS AB US S | @ RS sc @s@U ^ J@ oAaU, sZS TH AS, ZS AAS cA ~Lf-mBS a k r scS @S ?

@ cUU s ~UTɦs sQwwm c^f BSF s ɮɩU ~a, ZS J@ cAU @ c | BB OUS, A@ا @U@ɩ MJac @S @ T cU J@ ɮA a AU v m S | jv 1927 U @ |

r A gKO^ TB cA iUS | ZS RS ASB Bw A@a AaU S | ~ɰU rlO^ gU Bw @AaUS ; BS@fS AA cA ; ~v@U S @R | -gq ~qSg mBAv Ag @B @ wUS ; @ SS cFq X^ UwU | @ T^f ASw @US ASB qhaT, J cS UwUS @A AcU @ | mBAv U@ R J A SgA^ U U@ Acɰ @U - wH^T AScAO AASAo ToF T^f AScOS @ R AOl, SU T^f @ oTo coF ; sAR T^f ToF cAc A@a ~LfR AaUS | qF@ SS X^ ToF A ~qS g @B OU UwU | gK rAT@-~^US SpL ASUS SS Bw | @R ABUS, @R TAU@ J OA rAT@ TS:k U S | aɦ @ew @SASq rAT@ ~^US gw AS OAS - J T AaU s r mofS oAS@-rAT@ q Qq Ug, @Bq jq q U ɩ ATAU @B @ AOl | Ar Ac r @TFAS U ZS rA e @a | T U s rAT@-TAU@ X^ AO^S - ZS ~K OU S, (~T Ac TS c) |

@pK@ SS ~Ao@ ASR @ew R ~qSg SS TPS@F Z AU | ceU j X^ A^-TUTS X^ J | @pK@ ~Ao@ cF @ew s TS Aha S, @pK@ S Ac jv BUU @@ Ac @ UU | jv@ RS TUTS ɲA@ة cU TS @ AOl c S - A@ا Uv q JU |

ɲA@ X^ ~@v O Z AU sZS BcUU Sd SpL g rɮSAcAo Z PA @ @B d U | TUTS BSF ~qSg qeAB @ݰ ~Uɰ ~ɮS @c ~c oH AScOS TUTS eZFwA̤ ~U mgAc@gcq TUTS gF ~ɮcS, jZSR AcAo U |

@ew ToFR ZS mofS AS TP@F ~AS : BcUU, gK-TZ U@ cUaS kH mB Ac @B @, w^f^f cUaS, ~m ~m ~Ao@ cɦS @ | j ToF w^fABUcH ~^US @B d @US | cq T˻S r ~sw ~^US wUS - ceU ~SF U S | w^f-~̨qS OA AHA | v @U TS oU S | ^ɮcɰf s rc^Ψ @ ASB @B mAw ZAaU, ~c @B d @U | cr A@a qeB B@TOA ZS US | OwT ~mw Ui U | OwT @AS BSF ks S ~ofS mofS @ cU | @ش ިAUr sXo H AUS, @ش o JA wUS | A@ا jq AS @ew gK U j@v g @ Z U | w^fBf U ɮA cUU j ~SF @a | gK, rlO^ T U@ cUUS s ^ɮc J wH @cS S, @H ~sw cTS @p | A@ا ^ɮcɰf ~LFw, cfL R ~ɰrcɰ@ J rXo @S | ca U Ks^ ~o sZS gw Ae JA ZS ɵc Aw gKO^ cUAaUS s ArZ sA j@r BS gw Ae T ~LFwf r@ A , c g mofS ~S@ jAw ~ɮc |

ZAS@v jq @H, ZAS@v @^f @ew w^f R Sd-gK TZ sc@ U eW a Ac, ceU Ar@ @ewR UɰAU d U | rc^Ψ TpF (gK ZS T^U) sf^TS S ceU SpLg SS, TLBf ~rfcɰ AaU | sf^TS ~LFwf TBcf AaUS, gKO^ U U@ ~S@ Tq J @B sF @aS - AAS R gK j@خ BUR ZvaS | A@ا SpL ~Ao@ AS R q U ToF X^ @q AwAaU | q @H @^f @ewR gKO^ TT B AhaU S |

gK cR @ew @B ~^ @Tf AaUS | 1928-U @U@ɩ @ew ~AocrS T gK s mhac@ cASf pA @AaUS, OZS @U pA ~@KH @AaU | cFv AaU ި BA @ݰ | K@ PA @S AaU AcUA BA K@ @S @ | @بO@RB ި BA T ɩ | jZS gKO^ kccf ArQ @B UwAaU | cFv c OZ gU ~crFq UwAS | g mofS ewT m c^ J R wA^Bf TAcov sS jZS OZ ~ʨU A ZS wU (wA^Bf me ABASKv@ cUAaUS @ػɮ) | qeBR UQ @AaU cFv |

1929 U sf^ Sw, gK jce ~ @s@BS@ BA ~o w @ U | 1929j @@Tɮ gK BU qUS | sf^TS rf ~m AhaU - aɦ c R RS@ @@Tɮ AOA@l BSF ~SFn @ U | jqT rlO^ Ai@ @US s ~qSg 1929j AScOS AAS JcS S | @޻rS jce Ar@ @ew c @B g ASUS |

j sf^S ~ @B A US S | Acr @ AAS cc ~c w US | 1932 U JOf BU J TpF | gK BU @@UfS @޻rS T AScAO S - BU @ cA AAS q @B g ASUS | j aɦ sc@ذU S Ac SS Bw ewiS @B W U | T r @B STc BSF O US - SS Bw TAU ATA mAީ U |

1931 U @A AST Aco TU @ew @B sR BSF ɩ AS BSF BU sS | 1931j mofS Ac @A ASKo g ATAaU c @ Aw AAS w S ~c | ިAUr ASTT gc T ZS - BU q | w^f-~̴AS OA ~er Ac j AAS aɦ S | A@ا OA cf Pci@ sR J AS | kH mofS @ w^fAB U AB US S | aɦ BPSA@ c^f s aɦ AaU, ^ɮcɰf c^f ~^g AS |

AcU Pci@ @ TL ZAU AUS | @ew ~c ~sw @ gc ~̯ @U | 1932j BSA T @ew @s@A ATA cq w US | jc q cgqR cɰ wUS S | ceU ^ɮcɰf A J SgA@ @ @SASq gU OZ ZAS | ^ɮc J FQ sw TH @ @ U S | o ^ R g @ U@@ BU R QT @ ~qSw gc @ب@ ~ S @ب@, co R B U S |

BS@fS ZS ~m | cA ToF cO Bw aU rl sZS ~ @B @ US S ZS Ac g ަU c gq frO^ R - j@U @B QT J AaU S | A-~A R s cɦA, gq A@a Hwf oSf c^Ψ -g cS @US | TFASZ ~r@O^@ AOAi AUZ BSS U s sS TS A ަrS @ s - ZO cFcm sc |

q gq@ T U U ToFr av j@ @w | T^U Tq - W B-BSU Sq, rfɩ AScH S | gKO^ ިS ~Z ~c Oɦ AU | rlO^ cAv AaU, jq ~FO v ޮw Z AU | @ BNcUި BS@ jS ɽ ZUS | rl ZSq wUS | gK rf BSF ~ AL SR @ AOl co @U S | cU U AS sA r a Aw @ AB S J@ a R c | qeU sc ~STA R U S (RS AcAvr ɮv AaU - co RS@ ~v@ R ̩ S, A@ا AS cFv jA wUS) | Acr sc ZO @ cS @U S - RS ASB cFcm @ U | r aɦc ~w @U@ɩR s R U S | cɲcq Aw cMA Z @ jUS | TFASZ gq ~r@ AaUS | @@ iUS AgS | TI TI ~r@ Z UwU |

rlO^ BNcUިq wUS T | @ SS m AOAi A @US | R@UA cf : RS AcdXo s ~AgswU @\S @ s, U AcdXo @ػ UUS (~Agsw A@a @A gc ~S AS)| T @S US S | rKv AS ceU avUv@ AOAi AUS | jc @B jqv@ب U s RS@ @Aej ASB cA SBc^f @ ~STA R U |

gKO^ ZS@ AcAg^ r g̩f cɮf swmS @US | g ewT sF @c BSF XXo @US | cɮf R sc ~SF ASKo AaU (AcrK BTAS), U AcdXo Acɰ @ J sF @ UwUS | sZS UQ @US s g̩ c^ sf S ~F^ fAT, ZS g c^ O d @c cFcm @ UwUS | j @B J ~wq rc^Ψ kcS @Tf AciUgq vU ( c\Uggqj ɰ) d @AaUS (rc^Ψ Tr j AaU) | AAS gK@ ASB Qha ASUS | gKO^ c^ J mgc jqT pb | TpF@U AAS gKO^@ A@a ~˻ Ao@f @ wAaUS | c\Uggq TTU @ v c^ @S |

jaɦ RS j@v c ~No U SS r @ swmS @ - s BS ZS @ sF R s | AgS SwA@ em A@a U@ J@ j-cF sF @US | BTAS A@a U@ YF U | A@ا BTS @ J@ ~M ~TU AU S | AvU QT ZS cɦa | g̩f, jArcɮf R OZ cɩF | qeB T ~s BA sZS SfOBA g̩f a, ZS @S ewT@ gU OZ Z fA ToF S | (sXo T AS AvU @a A@a sF sAaUS ~crFq, A@ا ~S@ ) |

A@ا ~SFSF r J ~ɰ AaU | TAUAS AS Z @AaUS | (j U R ~SFSF ަS @ FASfA c^ J s TSgc AaU, - j@v ~ɮc)| TAUAS RS@ lA @AaUS | w TɮA@ @Tf : cSr R Z AaU | UF R c\@S rU aɦ AS A@ػ s^ wAaUS (~ɩɩ@ػ A@ػ c^ s ~r AS wAaUS, v A@ا RS vJ@AS)| ~Amv A@a U@ ToFT g̩ R ToF j@v cAHABF@ @ػ ޫSR AAS @c O @AaUS |

j ToFR RS ~SFSF AO^ co AS | oT c^ AO^ R oFSoH ~gFɮ AO@Uq AaU | @UB c^Ψ AUf j-c^ nU ~cF AaU (AUf @ UZ@ Ac sJ S AOScS c AOA ~Ac^ J gA-@ػ @ sJ SR BSS J w@ Ac J@ co AOScS - cTS ceU AO^ jZS @f TZ ި ZJB ~T Sq) | r @ SS ިAm@ AAS AUZAaUS, @ TS AAg AAS ArAU fA R FAr fA j@v ATUSoS @ Z OAaUS s g jq sM Tc w U gU c | FAr SfA ToF ~ɰrcɰ R rpU TF RS@ f @AaU | R ~FOU@ AS @S @H ~TU SAS | jv c^Ψ Sd R g ~SFSF AO^rfU U@@ AcOAU @AaU |

qeU g̩f anem RS@ AST^H @AaU | AcAvr ɮv @ RZS sR co qeB ~v@ ̩ S | A@ا AS IJA@v AS OqUS S | j@v gKH Ai AUS | q gKH g mofS ewT TLBf jce ASB pAgA ˻@F AAS ~UOS @AaUS |

q ~UOS R g mofS-ewT c^ J TT gU @ @r @ Aco J U sZS qeU @r@ U^ ݨqrv J@ Rq c^ cq AUZ ~So @US | q cq (A qAS mvwU, 1920-1934) g̩ @ c~qAS WKH @ Sf^S g̩f v ަ AS, jZS ASEO R sc |

jq cq UZc T J j@BS nvA BS AaU | J gAcKFl mf jATAU re@U jZS @ J sw | j@ ~c ic |

cq sZS rK ~ɮa q T BS@fS ~ɮ^TpF Zc US | qeB RS@ @U@ɩ sc ~STA AU jq Tv@ب BSF (~w mofS AS @ cUAaUT, @Bq jZS mf@ @ c s ~SF AcAr @ U jqv@ب cSF @̩ A@S, ~T ^ ~a) | Zc ɦɩA cq Z rK @ sZS cɲcq MJaUS, ZS BS@fS TpF a |

@Are @ rlO^ @U@ɩ ~ɮ ~STA AaUS | gq j@خ AީprXo @ RS O @ UwUS s Ac ~ݩ AgA rlO^@ mofSgc R@UA @ ~Ao@ R @ | rc^Ψ kcS swf SAUSf̵S @ ZS Ar@ T^f | T A@a STS @ AAS rlO^ BSF wgS@ ~So @US | J@ AS:r TA U |

gK@ g̩cK mofSgc AcOH @ A @ g ~S@ cAr AaU | U 1935-U wɦ AS ~c rFw @US | j Zc US s J F-@Ar cq O re ha | j@BS qeB TUO@ AUZaS, cɮ@ j@BS TBAcof ^ɮcɰf Bf U@ cUq AO R | A@ا jq cq UZ@@ c̡ AO^rfU, ofTA U@ cUq ZUT | g̩f ewT c^ UZ c cq ToF jv@ T mS R s | J TT UZ@ m @ cUaS R ~F^ Ay @ sA AZaS | j ~\ c j @T Ay AO^rA s @, @T U@ r BPSA@ @B ~A TkUFcS |

j@@U gK qha AaU TJ UJ RS cq gkAT@ AUZS ; cFcm @ i SAS | j-cF @Acd cf^S RS A@a TSTAUSFR AaU | A@ا TJ UJ me jq cq c^ RS@ AUZAaUS, g̩f ewT qA Q j cq ~TkUF | qAɮ UZ@ sc H @ @, T ~a | T T @Tf U@ ToF j@T TAr c j@v Z s S | RS BS Z AaU - @ AaU gKf ToFT |

RS v ~Z BSF AOA@l O AS ccq @AaUS | ToF @@Av G cH AAS wcq T @AvAaUS, A@a @R AaUS, A@ا ~R @ئ AOA@l BS ~ jS sAhaU S | jc AgS RS wU N-j ~mO U | m c ~c AAS AnT d @US | : cSr ~c Z @US w | ZS AAS O@mgA@ Axv (~crF v AvU @̰AS d c ~w - AS cArAS vJ@SAS ) | AvU jArcɮf R g̩f c^ Ac T^cF @ cp S | gK BTAS g̩f an-em@ Acɰ @ XXo @US | g U | AS cUUS, Acɰ S @U ~SF A@a @Tc S | B ZU c̡ A@a U - jZS@ qAq SAB ~a | BTS @ U@ jcR Z @ US S | mvAUS @R J@ l AU S - ݩ qeB A@a @U@Ai SAaU | A@ا cUABT AS cr A@aAS @vUS R cAUBT oSf g̩f Swf@ J MɰF U | J j@BS cɲcq cA AAS c-@ة@ ~AA AaUS |

~UF ZS mofS r | ~UF g̩f-~qAr em AciUgq FvU mS @ wAaUS | J gK@ AST^H @US | qeU sR B c S TS @ AAS ^ @ B @@ػ BB AS wUS | ~UF mofS-ewT AO̵S, gK, rl-TZ c cCAU S@ j ~w XXo @AaU | g̩f ~qAr mofS- snf cUq Z | @Bq RZS gKO^ O Tɰ U | rAT@ S, @ cq SS BPSA@ S Z U | Axv A gFU Z U ASc |

j@v TB WvS - jZS T^U BU kcS @ةpQ @SU Am R J Z U | ިS AS w\R U A@a |

jO @A @, RS jq AXf T AЩ BcUU mf AOA@l BSF AaUS (j ~A ~\@U ToF rfTf @TU Sd TpF ) | gKO^ c@@ J Z | R ToF YF wgf̩ | j ~wR r c cF RS j@ Q @ @ew S @ػ @aS | A@ا SAB J cq AЩBf TUOS @ cUAaUS s AAS SA@ cc @B T TLBf O T cUS - jv gU S | jAS BS ToF sA TSTAUSF R @, jq T v A@a rT co AaU | R j TH R sc |

gKO^ A@aAS @q TS AhaU s r cq @U B O @R r @B cAr S | A gFU j @ T˻S @US | @Bq gK Ai@ @US s ASKo ~TSF @q AAS g AcS | AgS AcAvr @^U j cF J@ coS @ AOAiR AUS | SUS S | 1936-j cɲcq BB @ STUS R ~AcUc w US |

ca cAr J@ c^f @ AS | A@ا @ cU ~w j@v Zc A ASq RS ca Acrc T rlO^ @f @US R r @f U |

rlO^ 1935-U aɦ c ~c R@UA A wUS | kcS c^Ψ ɰ ~gF˻S @US | ިS r A Zc A U S | e ~c haU U | T Ac cFcm U | cA A@v TU wU |

SS g̩rɮS ~qS AScOS ɦBɦ OUU | Rq AcoS @ Ai@ @US s TUTS R ~mprF BA m˻Q BSF ~qSg A@a ~ɮS J BSF ~Uɰ @c | @ew jcF ~A AaU - r kH BA-ASQ c jvq AaU ~ɰr | @Bq jq cF @ sAw @ AOl c A@S, c^ X^ Z AU ZAS@v | ިS mBAv SgkA sJ AaU J cUUS s ~SF ccF sZS ~sAw ~ɩ c^ ~a ZS ~qSg b@ ZS @ A@a wArfU @B @ O @ AOl, sA @Q co , ZS g @q ~qSg@ cSOU @ sc | AcoS jcF SpL ASUS | rlO^ Ar@ @ew gA Ac AScOS cFcmS g ASUS | ިS A^-TAUT X^ ~c m U | BUU @ @pK@ BAv S Ac ~wq cH-A^ @a W ZAaUS | @Bq AAS ~cCAU TAUT Ufw q TvTAv ɩ TUUS | rlO^ SS ~UOS O @US, U Zc j@v U S |

@TFAS @ew@ @SAS gU OZ ZAS | @ew ToFR ~S@ AaUS sJ TB^ A SgkA^ AaUS, A@ا @TFAS Ar-gBS@ gU OZ ZS S (ZS @Ț mvAUS sw, ԰AU S Ac AAS ZS ASB mhaɩ^@ cr Aa ASaS, vvAm TA@ AScA - ~c AS ZS waS, Ai@ TS ަa S | OfS OTFS ZS ~T OTFS c T rA ew @ SAS) | A@ا @ew @UR TLBf oSf-KHSfA J TS:k AaU S | J @ew rFAU Av pA @US | jJ ToF AcAr AaUS B@r SH, ATS TSf, ~r@ T, @TUcf OoF, ~OF vcoS, TTS UA | jT R cq SA@ BU |

j @ iU v @H | gKO^ ~SAmA r R @ةv cUAaU, j@v TvTAv Oc@ R Qn rlO^ S @ cU aɦ jTS A@a ST i@ @a U o, sJ ~T P@r R sccm ~T STF AaUS | cTS @U jJ @ U@ @ةv TS Za, ~AT BAS S |

gK @ s@ | RS@ c^f Z AcdXo j@v BST wAaU | AЩBf j@AS BSF ԮgK WKH @US | @^f AK RS @c c^ Ac@ػ iU | @ cUU, AS Ac޿BS@ U@ |

gK@ T cɲcq BU Z AaU, ިS @a qc cAU @ (j@@T A\e O@ ST AaU qc O@ - @ jq s^sw ~ co @ TS Sq) | A@ا RS rf BSFR cv R ZAS@v BST BSFR, RS@ j @Aej rlO^ cA SBc^f Z | jZS Tv AS gU AaUS | jq T rfTf re@U J ASAT nU ɩ | BSq m TU˻f AaUS - @ ɩ q ASq | BPSA@ @ @qc @UR AaU S - AOAin @ئ ^ @ ɩ |

A@ا @S @H RZSR RS mm AvJ@U S (~T oH RS rf @SASq gU AaU S - @B cFm @U AS v@ gU @S ~S@v) | ceU wgS @^f @@ BSUS s r jce RS cTS ~cm RS@ a AUR RS Q @S QA@ @B @ B c S | rK ~cAo 1937 U AS AS:r TA US |

Uq s kH FT @B ST US S - rf @ AU S | @U@ɩ j@AS ԮgK US @ U | me @Acd ~AgS^S iUS | بU TU vAcU g wU | RS cAS qha AaU s mofS-ewTf mpA j@v mf AS PA @, jq T@ l TBA S wɦޫS U | @޻rS jce Ar@ @ew RS SpL cJoq AaU, A@ا g Sc ~w ~ A@aAS AcrT Sc BSF AAS Tɮ JO UɴA Aw qUS | qeU anBfcS @U US j@ ɵAc ɽ-Ac RS YF AaU, UɴA J cA qUS | ަrS OU UwU | ިS c^Ψ AUf nU ~oFAL@ TT ~ɰSS UwU | qAToF @U@ɩ TB rlO^ R@UA R ceU ~qSg @ew oS TZn Ac AOOA̩ @B OU UwU | jq v ABASKq O ~UOS wS-c cq R sc | cTS rlO^ c^ jqv@ب cAU s RS rcv AO@Uq ewiS, ~qS R Ac@ػ A PA AaU | T@ ~qSg @ Q s c@sXo ɩ jZS@ ~qSgU @ p@ A@a S | cBv AS s Ac@ػ ɩ, ~BR OUa | @ Oqa ިAUr, @A @TOf cS, ~qS-rpCZU Qvq ~ɮU, AcQ U cUa ArQ, wHc jU cU j wAUA @S ? ~crF Ac gKv TA@ػS @ cAr qeAB ɴ ~ @T^ w WJK |

@^f @ew BcUU -ca gA AaUS | w^fAB cI AaUS s RS @ cT-WJK U@ oSF AS o @ cS S | BcUU@ AS ~S@v cr Z S, A@ @ RS @@ gA @ c, v AO^ @ AaU - gK BcUU c^k, Ac Q A@av gc Z sc, A@ا ި Acrɮ @ AaUS S | c @ew RS@q gA @ TSm @US (@ATAv gv ZS AS - c RA@ػe @ATAv RS@ ~TSF cAr @̩ S) | TL gK@ cUUS s RS mmFv@ ~ j@v gU @ sc, sA AAS ~\ A@aAS ~c Aw @S |

jc AS oS WJAv @US qvBUF R ~Amv fT @a ~Amv cɦwmvqS - RZS G cH RS mmF ިSdXo c g̮ AaU (j ~w BTAS @ @UR AS @ةAU m- T @AvAaUS) | j@v ~LBfcSf UZ qha J AaUq | @B sF @ BSF AS rfTf re@U@ cɦwmvqS ~ɮ ~So @US |

RS ~LBfcSf qAS AUAwTj RS BfcSrS R jc@ T RS BPSA@ AccS A@a Oc@ wS-c AaS ; ~@v cF ~UOSR T co ja, v U jATAU re@U c^ SAB Acc @ | wS-c R-v@ j@ cJoc j@v O @aS, ~T T TUAS, co @R j ަc |

jATAU re@U wS-c@ cUAaUS s cɦwmvqS 1937 U Ac T wS R Acc | J @ aɦ jcF @S TH Sq | sXoɫ sXokc @A @wBn R @AiS | gKO^ ~Lf rfTf @pG c 1972 U qUmvv q@AU AUZaS s R Acc 1941 U Swɰ sXo T BTAS wS A^T | ~SFSF BfcSf@ cUaS 1942 | AZv c @ S | sXo T R mTf-mf Ac cɮ @S j@ Ai@ | RS T ~Sf B^ 1942 U | SAB TpF rlO^ RS AOAi jAaU, AAS jATAU@ ASB mf cU AO AaS R @SF ~Sf @ BASaS | cf@U rlO^ Ac AgS RS Z @AaUS | 1948 U RS w aAc wS-c cq ~a | ~AT ASB c@ة@ AgS wfyT @AvAa - j@c RS ZJBc OR @AaUT | re@U ST ZS BST S | jATAU cJO ~aS A@S ~AT BAS S | ~Sf AccA ST sA @ (J cݮ jZS Kv R) v c c re@U @Svq S | @U@ɩ cAc @a @ aɦ c wS-c @a aɦ R cTS @ BS @AiS |

cɦwmvqS A sq | qAS AUAwTj RS BfcSrS AcmA̩ AccH gK AsaS | J qAS mvwUj UZ BPSA@ TT @ػ AZs AS ~ AUZ OAaUS, A@ا ~ @ RiAS | qAS AUAwT 1948 U @U@ɩ @Ar AaU | cq cOs c TkUF U J ~LAcrKH J BfcSrS nTAccS qAɮ |

cA avaU ~LAcrɮ OO @T - ɰ-AA QT Rq Acrɮv cAr @ | A@ا gK Accf TS v @ c OqAaU wɦ @q | RS aUcU BSc, J cA @ AU d ZJB, cq rA-ew O | A@ا R TS oT-ABɮR T @ AaU | Acc@S^ @a @ ArZUS oTQn c ˻@ة | o@ ~S@H @ATSf-@ɡS-Fw BA wAaU | BSc Qn AcAr rɮS s Ac^@, v AAS cIAaUS - RS Acf TSv ZS @ mB-~^US mgcq wAaU | A@ا ~ c c, SS T sZS @T @ Ac̩ U ZS AAS Acm ަrS R AO^ @R T AaUS ZS @ RS @a oT, BSfA, ~˻SfA c j@ cJo AwAaU | Dr AcrT @ػ AAS UANo @AaUS | ASB@ @Tswf Ac Z AAS jvR cI d @AaUS s RS T c cQ|Os O (sv RS@ aUcU O @ Aa) Sswf sv ~No, RS v S |

~T ~^B jq s rfTf re@U AS@v ew ~ɮ U AS J@ ASB ̮Ao@ AaUS | ZS @q co J sMSBfcS AcS d | A@ا jZS wS-c Rv@ RS AcrT j@ @aS | ~T oH s PcGc ToF T rNv sZS AcrT c DrT ~˻ cFc , v wS-c AU ZSAS ~c BSS S | T rNv qeAB ArN Ug o AS rfTf re@U gK T-@ػv gK oTgc ~er Ac oaS (ZAS@v A^@ T) | Zc j@v j s S ~crF - ASB BfcS ZAa R v T ToF Bv aɦc Zc j@v BS Sq |

RS BPSA@ T A@a AccS jqc@ T A@a cp m AaU | RS anBfcS jq Tc AAS qeU sS | qeU-cɮf g̩f jqT RS@ ~T^H @S ~wc Tq | AcAvr ɮv-of U@ qeU-sns co c QT qeB @ AaUS - R o RS@ j cF TA@ A | jc AS v TSUS S | qeU O coS US | g̩f emU cvq, SS BPSA@ U Agk aɦ g kcS BAASAo R Z U |

RZSq @S j@v g RS@ FAcɰ c^ r @ | TAUAS c^ RS kccf rXogc ~wR @ش gU OZ ZAS | AS ZS FA ToF rT R ASTScAvq c @ ZAaUS - q AST OU @ s ~FOv AaU, v@ AAS ~TU SAS | A@ا j ToF qvAU R BTAS BPSA@ Ov s Z sAhaU, v gK@ T AcS coF @ | jv AS q g m mf@ @AaUS |

a r c T a jc | AS jc Acr @ Tq @ew @^f @ATAv RS@ cf c-g̩f @ew ~AocrS gA TSSf @ | mmF ~S@ gU AaU (o cɦwmvfS R S, rfTf re@U Os co BSF A ) | AS r A jUS |

jce r Aq @B c wUS | j@ T ToF Aި Bɩf @ew gAL @ wUS - ceU Ar@ @ew gF Ac rlO^ mgcq wUS | vS wUS AA^-k ArZ ArZ |

@ew ~AocrS s oT , A\Uf c \U A | T c W cwTqU B r PA AaU jc | mha@Tf qAAS sF ZS BU, AcFl, A@aq ~gc AaU S | j@BS SAvg mvv-j B o R j@^ cU vS gK@ ~AocrS AS sR U |

J gKH gK ~c kH mB Ac @ cUUS | cUUS g @ASAmvvFrS g̩@q PA @ c | g ~˻PSA@ @iT TBPSA@ S U A̰ BSoH TU R @AiS | qeB ئrS c ɩ, sA qeU TBA^@ r ɩ |

@ew AQH^f U ~crFq j ZAr U S | c\Uggq vU (sJ ɰ AciUgq R v@ gKO^ @SAS SAS) s cp AUS -- me TL cUUS J@ j@v ST | cT^f ZAr @q gK@ sZS gA @ a, ZS A@av ~m S AU QA , jv TLBf BSS | RS g̮ AaU s BcUU@ AS sTS ATA @ cr Z aS, jZSR ިScpA c | TL A gKR rXo ZS - TPXo sq @ - AS ~Ae ASBR OUAaUS |

A@ا RA@ػe @ATAv PA @ T cT^f Zc Aco U S | @TFAS @ew rFAUmv AZAvATAv cT^f cU AaU - AQH^f TL SpL e |

@B OUq UwU | gKO^ AOASq qha AaU s j@v ~˻PSA@ A@\S @B d @ T a | BcUU SpL A@\S @B ~̯ U (mofS g ޡcAK@ A@\SU AgA jqZS) | Ar@ s c @U @ew ~ofS AaU (ceU @ ~ɮa), ToF UɰAU AUAr TLAB U sgc @ OqUS, gK j@T US |

X^ ~@v coU ~^BA@ pAgA AS | gKO^ sAR FA c^ J T cUAaUS, A@ا J TS j @vR AaU s qeB AcdXo @ U qeB rn sF @TF | qvAU, BTAS, BS gU @Bq @d@ c T^ @Bq @d@, qeB rn cU ~T c^Ψ | @ew ToF TLBf s SFco O @AaUS, ZS j-T wF S | @ew Q @ OfS sF @c BSF j@v ɽA ATrS ~wq AwAaU (OfS-BS sXo ZS d wa - jq ATrS @B c^ Ars @ Ԧ@v @vAS@f ~T @Sf ST AA^ AST ~T aUcU ZAaUT) | SAB ~A AaU S, A@ا BS@ rn gc AAS gU cU gcS | Accf ɮAcf c j ~S@ ~w r @ AU BS cɮ @AaUS jce ZS@ g̩f cXo @AaUS | jJS SAB nU AaU | AAS BS jAr- A@\S Acrɮ @S | SAB jq T gc cf@U ~S@ AaU, A@ا sZS@ @ cUAa, ZS J jq pAgA RS @ew j@v rArUf ~er Acoq w UAaU | qeBR ZAr @AS ~crFq |

@ew X^ ~R @H PA UwU ި 1937 U o | cg̩f @ew AAS s @AaUS, -aɦ ceU Ar@ @ew gALL J AaUq | jq T @U@ɩ @޻rSR R@ ~\TFS @ U | @޻rS O SfA b@AaU - gK ~w @q -c^ OS AaUS | jZS g̮ @ wU AS j-c^ A@a @ cS |

jZS s eWɩU coU, U ~w @q okTAݩ AhaU | ceU ~qSg rlO^-TZ S @ew @ iU b@AaUS | A@ا qeB SS ɲA@ AcgwSfA U T^fg ZS BUU @ T^fL @ wAaU | @ ZS TAUT Ufw sw AaS | co Ufw @v A@a ~UOS jZS @ |

TAUT Ufw ZS T AB^ (A@mS @ݰ-j-~BT) j@han | o TUTS m˻eQH J rF S, J ~c s g TUTS Agk Ac Ufw aɦ ~ @ش@ TS OUc S | @ew g ABS AASAo j@ J @a wF S | @ew @S Pci@ U ZS @ew Q @S TUTS c c S | (@ݰ-j-~BT qeAB aɦ R cU S S, TMUS ~Bɰ qUT rS Aco - @f U, AB^ c @p TUTS, TMUS A^ erc A^ waS) | gKO^ @ew gA c AB^ c nU O @AaUS, A@ا @ew TUTS ZU AB^ c @S @T OA AB SS | A^ Tɮg j ~A AaU S, A@ا @ew AaU | @Bq R nU @S @B U S |

~O ceU ~qSg cFAnT U | rlO^ jce J U U@ @ T^fg@ jTS @S ~qS @ AUS S s A^ R TUTS ~Uɰ @ Z | @޻rS @BS TUTS gF @cS, v AS gs Q OA , ~qS @U OUc S | jA@ A^ Tɮg ~c @aS s TUTS @S AcrK mS A OA @ J W AcAo @cS | rlO^ r U@ @a Aw cUaS s s A^-TUTS BS ToF AAS @SAS @S Aco ZSAS | Iw sv v S cFAw m˻ Iw |

@ T^fg AcdXo @ew R @pK@-B-Av U@ S-@SA^ ~S OqUS | A@ا Bɩf @ew @a @S sF US S | Bɩf @ew pK@ BAT BUU @ @pK@-B Av ASU @ mH @ cIAaUS s @ TAUT Ufw @Uq J BATA Aco | j-cFR ceU R Bɩf @ew Aco Bv A@ iU | j BSFR Bɩf @ew gKO^ rA @T s UwU |

1938j TITAI @q cI s UwU s ca AScOS gKO^ gAL R TLBf TS:k S | gKO^@ @ew cr A@a rArUf gF ~So @US jc AScOS S J - JU @ew ~^X^ cɦc | wA^Bf TMUS ~Bɰ R BcUU@ ~So @US AScOS BSF J | BS @شq AB USS | gK cUUS s cT^f Q @ ~Os S^ c TZ @S rArUf U@ J AB U AAS AXA^ @cS S | S^ c AB US S | wA^Bf Ag ATq@ J @US | SAB AcAo ASB STUS jce 2600 gv ToF 200 gv Bsf US |

jqc AF@ Aco d U | TLBf s-gK B mf@ @US v@ ~AgTS gK cU AOl S sXo WKH cU AOl j ASH @ @AiS | c j@v @ cUUS, U, ԮgK cc sZS @ew gA ZS RA@ػe @ATAv w ި g J@q R AOl | q @ATAv ToF @S TPXo Z AU RS @B ~Aco c | ~T s @S cF RS j@T c S, ZS sAw @R c S ݩ, A@ا @ATAv ToF co pA @ ~SF c | RS U qAʩv cIU - @ATAv ިv (q cgɩ c, BcUU Xo) ްFw @U | qAS mvwUj SAB sJ ިɩS^f wAfS cUAaUS, rov ިިA UU |

w^f TSc^ SAB@ cUUS, gU a, jc @ew rɮSg ~Tq Sc | A@ا ~T @ ? @ew ArAUmv gK c cF j@T SS, @TFAS rv@ Ar aJO S bU U ZAr S, wA^Bf j@ةcXo @ATAv wc @ ? SAB ASB TL@ rXoR @S, ~ jvR BSS s TL S @U @ew ~T BSR @c S | ~Os @pUAS cUUS, waR Zc, UR @بc, S | w^fBf wT T a^ c S ~ J@ U c, j ~r r |

gKO^ 1938j BUg ި @ew ~AocrS U Anިf | SAB ZS ~m, A@ا @HR g aS U S | 104 B AS SAB R TB Anިf wUS |

TL ASB Anިf wUS S, B@v j@v ~^US ST @ wUS | @Bq Anިf s WvU v BSF AAS gAw qUS S | wAc^c\Ug ^ AUAZ-Ai۩ mc ~SUS, jAS TL w^f ~ofS @ew s- OUAaU, - AcS @ c S | @ATAv kcS gF c^ Ac T^cF @U q @ cF @ c | jq TPXo U s :T ~ɮ coF, q T TL aɦ @R SpL TU@ S |

SAB U gK A@a AcS ~S O @U, SAB m R s^ mc TUAc Z O @U, w^fQ ~S qU | AScOS T cT^f s j@ة AZAaU, AS v o wa - @ew ArAUmv B@rSH s^ w^fBf A@ ASUS | ~˻l Z wU s SS RA@ػe @ATAv w wU ިS Tq w c | Sd O @US -U ToF j@v TP@F ~S (AS jZS s^ SAB c^Ψq AaUS, sAR, qeB rn ~T c^ը j T AAS @SAS TSSAS) | O Uk U S | w^fAB~S qUS, T B a - AT s gU cIc @ - ~T T ~Q @ S |

SAB A@\S AaU s @ew Q @ qeB @@ cU c j@v AcAr T ToF g̩ Fw @ (sv O ca TLBf me @AaUS) | w^fA^ cUAaUS r jZS BSF PA S | SAB ZUS ި w^fcA Uv AcdXo ި cT^f ~gc j@ A@a @ c c S | Sd R wA^Bf c^ ~AgTSR AaU | AS gAL Fw @US | Sd RS@ ްFw @ cH @AaUS (R g̮ AaU jZS j@v TIɩ J @S sc) | j SBf AB US S |

cT^f Tc @ j@v em w U, ɦ N@ػ | @wB cU, r r W ~ɰr @ cUUS, A@a sF US, A@a US S | Uv @ew g @c, jq O AAS @AaUS | qeB R@ ^ɮcɰf Accf Acq AO@U Za - ɦ N@ o@ئ d U | @ew AcdXo @S Acɰ @U S | AS AcrTsXo d wa | @ew BTS, qvAUS R @S SgA AaU S | J qeB cUUS s J sXo-O co cS S, c̡ U sF @cS, A@ا Ac @f cS v BS OqUS | qeB j cF Ar B aɦ @S @q cUU S | SS r @ew @ s AaU, j Ac ްFw @U | ިިAgc ~sw S ST Ai@ U s cFAw ~sw R Fw @ c | ceU ZS BUU @ ~ofS TAUT Ufw BL, ZS ~qSg @ew Agk Ac rlO^ jce J f ~qSg @ U UwUS | @^f @ew q T jTS A@a mc ~SU, sU gKO^ ~M TS:k U S | AS Ac ~^US wiS @ UwUS | jc @ew OT ~Wɩ AU | R@ cf @ew gAL @ cZm @U jce AU s AS ca AAS @ew @S AScAO BSF J cS S | ceU @ew cq jv TS ASU S, gK U ~ @^f U ToF rAr d U | cf AScOS ~w sF^ TA@ gc TMUS ~Bɰ @^f U SpL US |

sXo Os swS c^ ceU T^fgR @ iU | AB^ c T U s sA qeB TAUT Ufw@ g TUTS j@Tn TZn cU mf@ @S U Ufw sXoO sF @c | @޻rS TUTS BSF ~Uɰ ~ɮS @ mc iU ~c, j@R cU U s TUTS AASAo BSF o TUTSq gv A cS | rlO^ U W AcAo @US, @^f @ew jq Acc ~er AS OqU S | cFAw ~sw jce Fw OU qU |

jq T gKO^ j@v SS ~^US STUS | @U@ɩ ިc@UfS URU TSTxvj @ jZS @BS BSS BAS S, q cU c |

Urf sXo ~w ceU Scc ABMU j@c @U@ɩ PSF iS (DqA @ɲAS ZS cɰrf S ASq @U@ɩ a) | @U@ɩ qeB w @@BS qeB@ ~v@ Z ~S F @ cU BS AaU | URU TSTxv mpA w AaU | A@ا SAB T ~S@ F@ @ Acrɮ @̩ S, cU qeB vS @بl | ceU rK mofS Scc ABMU@ SFcS cf cU Acrɮ @v T AUAv@FAU @v AaU (mofS qAɮc ~S@ w\v@ \vaS cU BAS) | gKO^ cUUS s AB ST @U vS Rq TSTxvv@ c | ZS Fw @c T g̩Q ~qS ~S J@ w @ U | ~qSg ~^US U BUU @ sAR TSTxvv@ AB US, qeB A@ا gK@ aɦU S | AS AA^ BU ~v@ qUS | j @ g̩f @ew mofS ewT R SAB ewT kH Ag^ ASU | TB rlO^ gq qUS cA, c Ac c@ gK@ sF @US | A@ا ewT Qn jce gAv rlO^ ASBm ~qSw q wU |

~Bɰ A^ wɦޫS jqZS @ | wS-c cq rlO^ ewT @ ~T jq Oc@ @ ~S@ cAr R ~a | ceU SS ~qS cF @ J AcAo @ ~AT @T cUAa; w\v gK c^q oS cUAa |

AcAr @ @ sF R @ SAB ~S@AS @q gcAaUS - RS @ASf @q ^S ATUc | ɦ N@ ToFT AS q O OU ZAaUS | qvAU sAR T J@ O ZA @AaU, A@ا TA@ QT SAB Acrɮ AaU S | BTAS Zc j@v w ZAS @ ~wq Z wa | AS Ar R BS sw mS @c O @AaUS | rlO^ TBaU ~AT ZS UZަ @AaUS | j@c r @ T AAS SAB @a @ AOAi AS @ATxvS @Tf @a AS wAaUS | @U@ɩ BAS AAS ASBq Z @AaUS wS, j@BS c^Ψ cA | ɦ N@ nvA UU re@ UU SAB gq AXBr sF fUU aXST ɮv AS BAS BB @U@ɩ @ BS sS | ZS ɮAcf c R BS @A Z @S | BS ZS jArcɮf BSF jAr cU ~^US OUha | jAr SS r Bɩfݩcɰf ~r Aha ; UU cI O @AaUS j ToF g mS @ c | j ToFq AAS qeB o sS |

jqc O @ SAB @ةv U AaUS cU @AiS | ~ SAB BU sR c Oq co wAaU | AS BU @ aɦ R O @ UwUS | RS@ AcS AcO ~v@ Z AcdXo Zm @ @S Ug U S sZS ZS AAS OT AXo^ ASUS | ~w @ @ AOAi AUZ AAS ~SrS d @US | jcR U U - RS AcdXo ASKo U SR U - cU U s RS mmF A jUq RS@ ~c BU AS sR c | qToF jUAwS cA AAS SBc^f qUS |

jqc r aɦ Ks^ d U | SAB j ~w j@c ASB @A SA Zc ~c@r AaUS, @ BS wAaU s A@a A J c^ Zc @ @a MJa | @a @ c @ wS Z cFcm U | 1940 @q AS AEOT fT^ A r aɦ Zc @AaUS - ɵc @fA A@KS U @TFAS Av eAr AaU, R wS @snT Acmp AaU | RS@ sF @ ~wq m䨩 AaU | ~ɬwASmS R Ar ZJB Zc @ AaU (j@BS jq O H )| ɦ N@ RA@ػe @ATAv gF ATJ ~@c r jq T jUAwS ~S jce A Aw RS sn cFcm d @S | Rq ~U j@Av Ac aU qeB JA ss, gq gw T U jq U ~ | RS@ fT^ @ c BSF ZS@ gK BS Acrm j@BS snf BS AaU |

qToF gK sfA BPSA@ AOAin w^fBf, B@r SH qFA@ AUZ @S | cUv@ AOAi AUZ ceU oTf UɰAU @ BSS | cUS s cTS T^fg@ cAU @ jTS T^fg wiS @ @ s R A^ R TUTS q Q Acrɮ @c (jq c AOAi U gAcKF A@a UAaU) | jq rFw mA OU UwU | gqAI qU J rK @AaU, BSU | rlO^ B aU ArAr RS@ wA Ac ~cAo MJa cS cFcm U | cA @ UA@ c q gq ~Ac^ ~ AXBr sF @ mA ASU | rlO^ R AcgcfR BSUS |

cA cq U A@a U@@R BSS U sF c BSF | ɦ N@ rɰU Ae @Acr R F̵S cf j ~wq AAS rFw @ ~UOS @AaUS |

ATJ ~@c r sZS jAaUS, q Tq AAS R ArAr AEOT TUTS s K@ A@S ZAaUS | SAB BSF AgABAve @ɦ PA AaU T BfɴAS, j ~ qA Uq q^F^ @زAS, AAgU Uq^, BNc\ި | jq T SAB A Z d @US | oSc ZS AaUS rlO^ c aU ~r@, J@ Zc R U s j@BS AcAr ~AA@ AS ArAr rfWq scS | cA cA@ U@ BSU gK SS swoS BSF m䨩 haS |

16q BSA (1941) sn os AaU (SAB AA-SQn TSS) | j A@aAS ~w @ WKH @ U s gK ASBScɮ @cS | W ToF ް vS U | @ش sc S RS ~er - ް TS ~Ac^ Zc Z cS |

sn AXBS cq SB Z UwUS m ިAUr @ZS WTc | TI ArAr, ~Ac^ R gK wAc^ AB US | TU ~w @ U AaU | wA AQHTZ OUU | ArAr ~S@خTq cS, ިAUr @ش sA ZR @, ^ @U S | A@a k AQH Aw wA TZ w v ɦ oU |

TSF s co ަU, ocF S - sAR T gfA TS AaU | gcU wA ~r@ cA @a MJaU | j@ TqU ~w gK J TUTAS r@ wA @ ST wUS | ArAr ɰ@ Aw cUUS ~w@ ~ɮaS; mA @f a Z ZUS | A@aQH ToF T BfɴAS j wpmTf @a ASB @ɦ Ai AUS |

~r@ gq @a ~AA AO AaUS - aXcr Z AcAm US - AOS US S | @cɩ qeABq U ; O@ c@ ~w gK@ ZAS | cU U ~r@ @B wUS, ~AA BSF cq W Ai@ @ AaU - AAS Aw WAT ަUS | Ac@U ~r@ cA jU ^F wT sc B\S U | ArAr OSS S cU ~r@ sc BSF m䨩 US | mf@ cA j@U Z sR c AaU S, @Bq J@R c @ cU U | gK ~w Jv cA @ cUS (jZS s^ Or @ش J@ ArAr wA ZAS) | jc ArAr, ~r@ R J mf wA cA J@ @ U ASUS | mvrS J wAq qUS | A\Uf-@U@ TU k @ Z s gK wA @ ST wUS, cUUS, ~AT OUUT - T A sR | AS vS Ri s^ ~Q @ cA@ cq cA AUS | jqv@ب BS wUS s @@ cAUS scS, A@ا jZS c Ai@ AS |

gK @U@ TU @ STUS A\Uf A@a ~w mvrS - q Ai@ AaU ATJ ~@c r | RZS @ gK Axv TU OUS rR | ATJ ~@c r OUUS | rR gK vS @ ST BTU vU sc BSF v Ri s^ SB ZUS | n vU J Z @ c cFcm @ BAS wUS | AS RS@ j@v gɦ cA A AS sR U | 21j BSA gw T U J @a Aw ~LAO AUS |

@fA A@KS Av gw T@ RS f Ac Ai@ @ AAaU | gw T ST ASUS T ZJ | gK RZS@ gK BSS S, AS US Tk@-cAo gU@ - ~ɦ-rA f˻snf | ST BfɴAS qU | Ac K@ a rU, @TfB, iS @v, @ب\U, wA, rRA OU U - @Jo @cUf @زcU | gɦ wA 22j BSA R fT^ A@ RS AUS |

TqU r sR wA a Jv oUS | qeB fTS AS US | T Zc Z, cA@AS Jv n j@Av wT ~r ASUS | iS ~AA-clU jZS @B jU, ASAcW ɩ @vU | AS R ZhO gɦ @US | jqZS ~ɬwS BF cr | ~SgFm SAB j@c ZhO @ wUS | c ~gFɮ A U S | ɩv @vU ArSf B j@ wT | AS rR-@cU ɦ oUS | jAS s^ jm S AS Zqc AwAcL AQH A jAaUS - fT^ ިAUr \U ަ AS |

R jZS A^@بr @a | SAB ZSR ި rA SAS, A@ا l jq i AAS F @ AS US | jZS c m MJa R j@v v@ ~r AS BUUcɰ ~cAo wUS | ZS j@v vU ɩ @Av AS ~ɦ rf MJaUS | ZS gw T BS U@ AaU | ZS @ A@av v Aw R ~c v@ US | Uc^ AwAcL rf ToF A @cU MJaUS 27j BSA |

j AccH A@a UR @ AUT, @H j @ jAS ~AT c ~T OS @ش @ZS rSAS | jA@ @U@ɩ 27 AZ ~ɰU RS Amϩ @ @ | RZS J@ S U cA ިAUr T s S , BSF ~Ac^ ck TZl qm c @ U s gK cɮ@ cA R sha S | cA U@ ZJB @a | ^ @ sha s AAS ^Fɮ wH @ wpFw @aS | AAS aUcU ~@c wpFw @AaUS - jv RS mgc ToF AaU | @ش Acrɮ @U @ش @U S | @ ^ @ A@a U S |

cf@U A@a UZ@ UZc O @aS s @ BS S RS@ U AAaU - AS r cq @q gU TS AaU | A@ا ZS@ SAn ZU j @ TS S |

@cU T ZJ R BfɴAS j@v qZS iUS | 28 AZ @ Agv @ sw mS @ O UwU (@fA A@KS Av vq ~No AaU) | A@ا gw T j@c dr UfwrS @ cU LLR RA@ @ @S ɦ jU S | 2 cA BTS UfwrS Ag @B aU @ b@ SAB UfwrS j@BS hOްm @TOf Z @ US | cAUS ABɮ @ iS U jq AT TUAv@ AS @f @ s | Ai@ @ U s gK @cɩ mSf AT^ @ɲAS ToFT @ c | RS@ cU U 5q cA RZS Z @ |

jA@ qZS ITU UwU | j@BS @cAU ASB@ ިAUr cU AO A R B @ d @U | cc R j@Av AT ɩWA @ cZAr A TZ O R U | A@ا RZS @ ~ ASް TS U S | gw T wT U@ j@ ~Lf T OJ TUn @cU cFc @S, gw T J mH ASUS | T OJ kcS mofS ewTf AaUS | AAS RS ~r AUS | A@ا ɦ U@ @SWK d @U | T OJ kcS Bɩfݩcɰf c^Ψ Bf ~NU gS@ c @ cUUS | qToF gK ~m ަUS, R sF jce rfTf TUn rK rfA@ R BPSA@ Acް A@a @TU | 5q cA Zc jU s cAUS jcF TS Aa | Agv Ar g A RS@ cAUS AS sc O d a - T Uwc |

j A UwU | gK jce gw T gc d @US s wS Ar b@U @TS | cA TITAI Zc jU s BTAS, BS R qvAU j@خ Ar@ ~So @a s gKO^@ sS Ar g A Aw s s |

j cF ToFR gKO^ UZ c^ AS | Ԭɦ N@ ˻@ة ST j@ZAS c^ AAS AUZ UAaUS | g̮ AaU Rv AAS @U@ɩ MJa A cS |

BTS AUwrS sF gK qvAUS AUwrS @ة rf ~Ucv @AS esw @US | @AS r Zc iUS s gK s j@Av mofS g̩ @ A @ OS | RS BSF qvAUS ɮv cFcm U ~UF TBv ST | 15q TO Zc jU s 18q RS@ sn @ c | gK gw T@ TB ST ceU AOAi AUS | ɦ N@ en^ c^Av aɦ ~@Av qeAB c^ gw T@ r AS s cUUS | @cU rK ɩ gK R gw T AnArAS ST j@ qvAUS gU@ cA @vUS | AS gK@ ZS @ U SR U | R@ wA R U Tm AS sR c, ZS @ AAS cAUS scS | @cU R @U@ɩ ToF sw Zc BSF gw T @U@ɩ RS wUS SAB UZ AOAi R c^ ZAS AS |

SAB sZS cAUS ASB@ A @ O @aS, T ceU A^-TUTS Iwv b@ ASa | rlO^ q U ToF cIަ O @aS | ɲA@ PTnf S R s^ @ew wHewT cU o cFAw Fw Acrɮf | r @U v TS:k ha S | rlO^ ZS ~ Bɩf @ew S@SB Sq, A@ا ceU @ew F Ac ceU ~qS AK @ AcQذU oS TZn | @ OUa TAUT Ufw Q @ BUU @ T^fL | TvTAv qeB @ @بT Tq @B ha - cBv ިAUr ZO cɦa (cf ZS ~^fH T^f), Acrg̩f gw @Ta | AOmf c^cm U R r iUq oTO sha | rlO^ TBA^@ TU@ BATwɤf Agk Ack @aS | jq T Ufw BUU @ eWɩ U |

s ZS BTAS , FA ީS a | r U@ cI a S qeB rnv@ BTAS c^ΨL R AOl c A@ S | A^ Tg ɮA qeB @@ sF @ A@ IJ@a | TAUT Ufw ASQ @c O @a qeB O A ~ A@a Aco ~ɰ O | A@ا BUU @ Ufw gF R LLR qeB sXo O ݩ @aS | jq TPXo U BUU @ Ufw @ ްFw @US |

rlO^ ~c BUU @ cIަ STUS | wAg @AUrS U B^ U | BATA ha R hOArQ AcU cF Ufw T^fL AcdXo BT wv@ J @B UwUS | Ufw T^fg ީS U | BUU @ ~c T^f US | @ U cf ةv rlO^ ScS | ceUr ɲA@ PTnf wɦޫS U | A@ا j sv WvU v qeB gSfA @r cU TS @ s ݩ |

gKO^ ɰ R qeB Z̰pA Zq AaU | gw T ToFT @cU BTS UfwrS @a @ gKO^ c^ ZcZc rlO^ @a MJaAhaU | jZc qeB ީ A@S jce @UR Acf ݩ @ BSF rlO^@ @S w @AS ~AT cAIAS | ݩ BTAS Ar ~nTH @ qeB j@v A^ @ O AvU T AaU jce qeB v BS - @kvSfA AO@Uq BAvU | jq T d\ qeU j c^f AaUS, @ TS ~a BAS S (BTAS jq Ar ~nTH U g @TFAS U qeB @ػ A@@T cUU R ԮTBFcA@ sXo @f @ ɩA BSsXo wU, Zc c Bw jv S, A@ا TS Av b@ UT S) | s@, j c U @cU BTS AUwrS ToFT Zc ~S Ov @AiS i UwU | jq T Zc c j@v ~Q@p B ^ R US | gK cAUS BAS Bcɮ R @U@ɩ BAS @ATrS @SU ToFT Zc i d @US | ArAr c @SU@ @U@ɩ SS Bw @ U AK AS ~ɮS R l AS | rlO^ q T AK Aw Z @S | j U@OA LLR cFv qeB O OZ jAS | A@ا BS sZS qeB rn AS, BSF rlO^@ w @ OAS - ~qSg AcQذU S@ w @v ~M g @B ɩ S | A@ا Ai@ sT rlO^ SS ceU T^fg gF shaS, q T BS U c cT U U j@v kH SS BPSA@ Acr pA U | BS sZS @A@ AcQ U OU wU ZS rn swB @ ~o rlO^@ w @ U | wAg @AUrS A@av cU wU - j@ AbU AZ TU qeB |

rlO^ jZS cr A@aAS @c @cS | ZS J@ Z gKO^ @ASf s@ | BTS @ sAR J cc cFcm @ AU, A@ا J ި sAw @ vUTvU @ UwU | AvU BAL ~s cU FS | j@خT ASv@ qeB gw @ AS c, j@ J TS AaU | jAr c Bɩ fS Bɩ, ~s X rA Rq gwFAUA jce q TU | @Bq g mɪofSv c @ S, cɮ R TBv@ @ةv @B UwS sc, jqvq AaU oS AcOsF | gKO^ j@v ~No AaU BTS, qvAUS R BAS @ g mofS ~Ao@@ mf@ @ cTQ j@v AccpA A@ | A@ا Rq AS @ ToF mA@ Acrɮ Zc cAr AaU S | ~^ RZS@ BAS Bkc Q @ gK ZcZc r MJa c cFcm Bq AaU | A@ا wɦ A@ R O cAr Aco AAS @ US S | jaɦ qvAU j ~wq q@cU Aroq ST j@ g̩f @cɩ OUAhaU | @Bq Aroq j@v cIަ @ gK Q BSf AaU | v A@aq c U S | Aroq ZS g @ O gAcKF A@mS @q cAr gcAaU | ~Z g ɮ@ gK v A@aq F @US S |

j@v cF BTS @ sF gK AhaUS | mofS g̩ @^ cU j@v em wɦ cJoAaU | j oS @H jq s sAR BTS @ hOm (~˻l AvU ToF) gK c^ @S SgA AaU S, A@ا Ai@ q @Hq ~Q@p ~omS @TOA ToF J c^ SgkA Acmp AhaU | jq @TOA AaUS cA@ BTS @ U@ | j@@U BTS TB rfK Jq AaUS | AvU T j@v O AcAr (AvU B^ ~Amv) U@ R QT J OQبrkU AaU, A@ا @rF A@a @c QT J AaU S |

jaɦ ~ j@v @B gK @ AaUS | s aS g̩f (jJ @ش Accf, @ش gkkc an c rɰ U@) AS cAUS ASB OA@ B @ O @AaUS R A@a A@a U AhaUS | jToF kcS ecA@ j. A. jS. SAc R ~Ac S ST cTS @c - cA@ A@a ST ~ɮc |

gK cFAw BfcS ~@v ɬUF rfTf re@U@ AgS @ ASB nvA Ac cAUS AS ~ɮ | jv @ c Zc TS:k AS | re@U JO m U@ SS, ~O gK Os B@f ZA haS, jv ~S@ OQبrkU AaU | A@ا s^ | re@U o @B cF gK S ɩ US S, R ިS @ػvR S cJo iU | RS Acc j ~w AaU S jq T AaU, c^ ~w A@a ~UOS @Aa, jZS v ASyBS |

mofS g mf@pA gK @SASq US S, A@ا mɪofS g̩ @^ @B rArUf i UwU | ~Bɰ A^ cU j@Av An@ AcAg^ gK @r @ UwU | c O ~BS U | ~Bɰ A^ AR aɦ SFrSU @ew AR R ~Bɰ TAUT AR OU U (jv Aroq@ ZAr @ BSF A@S ~AT BS AAS) | : cFɮ BAv gK, A. Ac. rT R B. @. cFSBf qeAB ecɰ O R ~UOS g ASUS, ~. T. US ~Bɰ TAUT AR g ASUS, @UFH c ceU ecɰ AcrS @ UwUS R qeAB @ ceU ~Sc g ASUS | Ac. Ac. A. @ g̩f wS-cBS U jq emU O @ UwU |

gK j@v m AO@U AaU, mofS g wޫS @q ASBm PSFcASf w U | jq qvAUS sF @U Aroq SSgc co LLR | @ cU ~w ~T j@v AO^ @r @A, w BU | Aroq ~AT @ݰ-j-~BT T AB^ j@v ATU AZ | jq rHf U@ w O gCvq cAr a^ @ | co jq ~LwAT O ~Q@p B cU | TS ަa c cf @U (j w\ rK c A@a ) Ai@ AaU s Sc-AA qeB ATASS Ac g̩ R A@mS q r wgS BSU j@ TɴxvcFvS @cS R q r ToF @ػ wiS @B @cS | rK Tk @ݰ-j-~BT ~N @US A@mS wgS BSU AAS ASB cS | ca mofS g A TɴxvcFvS rɮSg U AUS, T AB^ ASBq wgS @ Axv wUS |

j -j@ ca ToF @ݰ-j-~BT TpF @F^ w (~S@ cU s @ew sA ca q ~Q @̩, U A@mS pA ɩ S - A@ا RS w Zc @Rq BS S) | J wrsF r A@mS @FAcSv-j @ɴ@ Z sAS (J AS ASB @B Aa ASaS) | ~B sZS gB Tr̬ @ݰ-j-~BT aAc TS J ST cA vS, ZS j @ @ TS S (Tr̬ c Sq - T AAS Arr) |

~Bɰ A^ w\ A sq | sXo T qeB @ ASB PSFcASf g̩f eZF ~S@ cɦ coF AaU | q PSF qeB Q @ c sXo ASB cfL jce Acrm c AO AAaU, AcrK @ ~A@ qvAUS sXo | -T qeB Q sXc^f ToF c g̩f PSF qvAUS jAaU | gK cUUS s q PSF g J@ R @, AAS mofS g PSFcASf sw c BSF AO @cS | qvAU BTɻS Tr @U, ̰m @f AaU wS-c c Zc SAS | Ai@ U s g̩f sXoc^f BTS @ R c, gK ̬ @c @fgc SR c | BTAS sXoc^f @U c^ ~^BA@ ~qS j@@T, qeB AcdXo Ac @ ASB mofS g PSF cU WKH @U ~qS kH ~Uɰ | j cF PSF TT BS BTS @ AXo^ Sc | PSF @a ASB ~cS BSc ~Ao@ gKO^@ R U |

~S@ PSF J @a @ mofS sXo ~cS ɦ AU, A@ا ~ ~S@ AU S | s SS Za AcrɮWɩ@ة @ OqU S | T U OU wU BTS @a PSF ArQH - cA@ c^f qU |

s c^f qU, ToF ~Aخ eZF cAr | @Bq PSF @بO-@RB @c U@ gK @T AaU | BTSR co cASfv@ ިިA gK a A m䨩 AaU S | jq PSF BTS PSF Tq \v mAm@ UwS @ب UwU - o ~Bɰ A^ m@ Ac j@v ީ@ Bɦ U - @ew A R OZ cU j@Av ~nTHɰF cW aAc | (AcAcA s OUAhOn PA @AaU, ST AaU, A UfAe vqw) |

jq PSF g̩ ~nTH aɦ @R cFc c A@S, jq cIަv ~m qU | c oH AST BTS PAS@ s r AS ɩ, v@ A@Al AcS @ JU jq@T : ~AT Dr TQ r @Aa s BTS BA A R j@Tn ~AoS@ ~Fɦ\ AvU A Acrm @ g mofS BSF gKO^ c ~ofS sXo @c jce H A jq r Q @c |

g̩f cASf QScQH @ BTS PSFoFQ Tv A@a cw U | A^ wd Zc S, UU S U TUTS Zc S | rK ~cAo A@a ̬ U | g @vc BTS - @f gc @v U @ش BSc S | mAr@ة TS Z cq AB U |

PSF ~crFq FUv @ T qU AvU cUcS - cUcv @f | TUTS cU ԮUT ~PU@بT, ArZ cU Ԯl rf ~@U | Bި cU, B TBfA@, v@q cU O U, B A^mS - ZS @ cU U B A^ | Rq KHv @ ~ TS ~a A@S BAS S, ~T sXoɫ R @-mofS sw Rv cFc @ wMc co @̩T, jv TS ~a - qAɮv wS-c cq @ BSUT |

gKcc@ A@ PSF ԮgKcc cUq ~AgA @c, S ABf c oSBf cUc ? j@BS PAS@ Tr AU, T S cUU @TS ? q @ RS ST wU SAB | ~AT ASB jZS STv cFc @ ~S^ q |

g mofSv BSF sXov Zqc AwA̮e@v ToF A c ~SF @S sc, v ASH @ @AiS AaU, A@ا ~wq AcrTsXo Ov A@a cU wU | jAS s BTS cASf@ ~B TS @ cq g̮ AhaU, Ar HS sm UwU | q T BS sZS U c ~nTH @ TA@ػS R qeB AcdXo ɮAgc STU, ZS ~Bɰ A^ Q ~@v rArUf cU R @ gc UwU | SAB ITU @ AvU @SASq l AaU S | BS TIɩ d @ U |

BS @a@Aa c r qeB, A, RU^B AScr | U vS BS ~wq jAr o jArcɮf cU o UAaU | qc r U@S ~S@ qeB @a @ AU BS ~r ASAaUS | g Q @ ɮAcf c ST ~wq @Aa | rFTr fT Ae R ~T Ae A@a ~w @q qA qA^ Ufw wAaUS, rZ jAr ~SFSF r cɮf g̩f ToF AaU | j AaUS g w Av rZ S UR X gcA^, gF oS ArZ | j aɦ q g̩ @UOU UB ST j@Av em AaU | BAS PSF cT MJaS ~S@ ~w @q BS @ j sw mS @AaU | jq @B g @Tf AaUS TB بABR~ qqAO | fT Ae qeB cASf g̩f PSF U vS @ gcAaUS, A@ا BS sXo ST ~w jA@ @S ɬUF AS |

Aި qeB cASf g̩f PAS@ TB بABR~R sw mS O @AaUS | TU j ީS ~w s^ j OR Zc j@v U AS | TU qeB R @@ B g̩f PAS@ BAS c^f S | jJ SpmSf ToF @FvS TS Aej ST @c | BAS jJ@ ~wq U vSc O @AaU ~SF ~S@ g̩f PAS@ Tq | T ASR w @SAS ; qeB R TA@ ~SwF AaUq, aɦ BAS TUcR gU cI sAS | jZS qeB TA@ AScAXo cq@q Ac̽ @AaU (R Aި Q BSF o T A@q SB ZAaU ; @TS c T A@ TZ @ @eAnv J | sZS TUs Xf @ d @BR A BAS Jvq b@ wU ZS ~ @TS Wc T R wU S) |

TS Ae ɮA TB بABR @ @ ~rɮ US s g mofS A BS @ kH SgA ~a | TB بABR ASBR BSS S s jcF BS Q @ @S ~Ao@ J@ R AS | c TS Ae qA qA^ Ufw ɩ ATU qAS qA^ ~AT wc @B STUS |

1942j ~cm A@a AcS U | BTS dr A@a SBU UwU (jq T@ UASSw sXo AS dr ToF jZS wMcco ~a - RZS sJ waS J BSS) | BAS ~wwA cF U U c ~TA@ sXo ST U - BAS SM-cASf r^ Tɮw TA@ػS @a i s UwU | ZS g AF@ c^ΨL @U @aq @TF iU | qeB mvɦ An@ g iU @ew A^ @ | cTAS @ gK@ BS ic ~BS U |

SAB AS TBv TZr ިިA ZU UaS | AvU j@c @ @ jv gUq cI waS s RZS ~ @ Ug Sq | nf-MF AS ASmU a (S Uq AcAm c @H AaU | ssc ԰pAɩ-j A@a ZJB R sc)| qeB @MrU S gU BSF r U@ ~AgS^S @ SAB c j@v cp S | ASB@ AAS AOASq @ew U@ cU TS @ jaS | @ew j gUcɮ AcrK TkUF AS | AS s FA sw AaS, jv J @SAS a^ @SAS | ~T rn rnTnq ~T c^Ψ j SfA ASyUv J cIS, SAB v cIR U aSAS, R @a @ sv@ب S Aco ~ɰ @q J rF AaU | jvR AAS ZAaUS s AEOT @ g cr @ B c S | BS ZS g B @ cAr k S |

1943j 8q cA SAB R ~Ac ɮS Fw @US | j ~w ~^:L rfTf re@U@ SAB AgS c cA Z ~S | 1942j 29j Sgc J @SF ~Sf B^ | T@ OZ Z gwF SAB AS | rlO^ @a RS ASB mf-@SF cU AO R AOAi AAS Ai AAaUS |

BTAS SAB s emAU A @ A wAaUS, @B OU UwU | ccɩ R @wB ToFT s O OUAaU, vR ~cF qU | c U @ةv ~rAaU cU r | g̩f MB ArQ BTS ~ofS sTS AaU qU | @ AaU s qeB AcdXo aɦ ~ @S @B cFc @ cS | ca cUABT AS sR ^ qeB R ~TA@S ~nTH Ao @ | v@ Ai@ ɮA qeB AcdXo sXo cU TS @ c PSF ~A AaU | A@av q @H, A@av ~SFSF @H ZS g̩f PSF ToF rpU Q @ k iU | R ~c BTAS l ~S U | sZS ATnrA BTAS cr @ ZS jq U gC s - ~S@q c^f |

j@v w\ jZS ~c^ A@S cI Aa S - wS-c cq ~a | BTAS @@UfS SAB@ sc BTS sF @AaUS, J @Uq AvU Ug AaUS S | A@ا @S @H SAB J c^ΨL S cJoAS | A@ا SAc jJ gU AOSS | SAB BTAS aɦ jJ ToF @@BS AvU@ F @ Ks^ @ cF˻ S jce o S | SAc jJ c^fr jJ sF @ O @AaUS - rK ~cAo BTS @ rɮAS ASB H cJO sS | jq Ks^@f R @ @f ~TSAK@ ~FO @AaU, wS-c @ cUaS - ~AT U AUZ AXo co @Aa |

~T jAr A@a c^Ψ ~T@ r @S s SBf T j@v ~SF@f U SAB @S @ػ ZAaUS | jTS s AvU c ~SFU @ SAB BS SAS (sAR RZS@ DA c^Ψ AS r Fw @ Tr AS, jce ASBR cc cUaS s SBf ɲA@ة J@ AcOAU @) | A@ec R @a @ sv@ب Aco @ AS S v@ب @ Aw A@a TPXo O ZAaUS | BAS R Rq vSvAS J AaU, v ZAa | ݩ j@q cU BSfA |

BSfA@ F^f TSAc@ R O cf@U H AaS TSɮ w^f, TAvS U A@e, ~S ɰɩ, q@ AcS | jJ ~T STF |

BTAS w\ qA @ BSF jZS ~AT @@ ca jAw wAa, jc ~c SAB @a A sR s@ | SAB cTAS @ A sha Zc Zc c qeB ~AcA AaU S | AS BAS R BTS AUA i QT qeB AwAaU | R s @S co pA @c O @AS c O @S U AS, @ ~T BAS S | cTAS sn Zc ~T AaU S | cTASAv j@Av qeAB cAHBF BB@ AcR AU - v j@v ~r @H ~crFq AaU | ZR-R cFcm TSA AaU S ~M | ~Ac ɮS O @ A@a U Bwɦ @ SAB@ U-gɩ ZRAhaUS @ZS @ZS | BTS sn jqgc wU | j ToF SAB A qAS mvwU j AXf emH @B A@a @US | 24j jAU g̩ Tɮw j@Av BAS cTAS jU | BTS A @pک R Ac KH BSc av AAC @ q AcQبNo Tq cTAS cU U |

BAS BBAv ~Q@p c AaU | A@av ɩ- aS wU | MJa s @ةcF -c^ Z @ d U | ~Ac ɮS AUZaS s jArcɮf ~R j RS BSq A@av m R ASAEO^ co @US | v ca ZO Zɩq qU | 6q T cS Xf c^ R T BS AUS | @FvS qTTv j ~w cAUS V AaUS - AAS SAB@ ~w cA ASUS | RS sF jce SAB O g A SgkA^ j@v U BAS ToFq w iU | BS T sZS SAB oST^f B Z U, AAS SAB ~S@ cFq j@T US | g mofS cF AS cgc sF @ ~rɮ AUS | A@ا cT A g̩f MB@ g b@ R cF B A@a cU US S - SA c Tr BS U | A@ا cU g̩f cF g q@ب ɩ @ AS qTTv@ A BS @ AB U SAB ~So |

qA qA^ Ufw oS @TQn ZS Aި | A@ا gCSr | TS Aej PSFoFQ ToF Iw ZS TAS | BAS R TPXo | TS Ae ɮA ްFw @aS | SAB sZS Aި wUS, ZS@ g̩f TB ToF SS H U | qA^ ~AT S lg SAB UAL mf@ @US | ɮAcf c @rF g qA qA^ Ufw @ةpL SAB U A cUUS g mofS ewT dg gKO^ T rArUf S U A AAS ASAEO^ co @aS | SAB ~ofS qAS qA^ ~AT ST cU @A@gc ~Bɰ A^ MB U | SAB ASB SS PAS@ vSc @B ɩ AUS | MB BSeZF TS Aej ްFw 12,000-j STAaU | c^f PSF ToF ~ 10,000 o SAB cp S MB sw AU | oH g̩f U@ ToF @ R wU ~ 18,000 PAS@ | ArQ gw ިS ~Bɰ A^ U@ qU | SAB ASB l AS SfcASf wiS @ UwUS | UQf mATSS RZS ɽ AaUS, qA^ Ufw c @B @AaUS | SAB J Z R BSq cIUS s SfcASf wiS @ c jce BS | r @ SAB sgc OAaUS s T r @B ST@, -m jZSR ˻@ OUU | ~Bɰ A^ MB ToF IJA AS Acw pA U | qA^ Ufw @ AgrSU wgSTxv ~ qAxv qA (~Bf @بTl j ~Bɰ A^) pA U | ~vc T BS @ jq @@ mf@ @ AccpA AU | ~\@U ToF BTAS, qvAU, Tɡ@بR, nAr, AAUAS, rFTr R cT @ mf@ @ ASU | ~Bf @بT qeU R ~TA@ AcdXo sXo WKH @U |

jZS j@v cF @U pA ~@KH @ Oq | Z R sha s jq SS g̩f @ wiS cF SAB @wB @UT k gK oSF AAhaUS | @ R cASf ST k | ~Bɰ A^ MB TA@ f @ذT @ذT cb s gK | J sF˻f c^Ψ ToFR TUTS AaUS ~S@ | A-TAUT PTnf ToFT aɦ s mofS g̩ w sc S, jv AS gU @ BSS |

c AcW AaU ~S@ | rf cfc TZ TU Aި A@a g̩f ASB sɮcm ~Bɰ A^ @B S @US sAR, A@ا ~S@ g̩f j cF ASmp qUS | BAS @ @a sv sF R wU, PSFoFQ ~S qUS AcdXo | jqZS SAB U US cT c T @ |

BAS jAr c r @ػ c^ SAB O c T ~S@ cAr RA@جU AaUS | j@@U AS gcAaUS s cT mofS BS sF B @ c | q Acr R g @ AAS ASB U U@ cUAaUS BS@ sF @ | A@ا cT BS sZS Bf U, ZS Z wU cTfB mofSv @wB-@UTq @c | cT mofS @@ BAS PSFoFQ ~ʨAU-USq OU c | @Bq sAR SAB BAS sF AS R sF @ m䨩 qUS, A@ا ATk A cF @ػ ST U | BAS R ST TLFv cI, @Bq sv U A-A ZU | ~Bf @بTl@ TZ cUU mofS g @, A@ا @ c^v TIZS @S k ް qU S, SAB cc ~So LLR, ~˻l ~Bf @بTl BS Jc Acq wU | ~^TS Xfި sZS BAS B @U, ZS ~Bf @بTl@ g U | Av Xf ST cU rf R mB @ U, ~Bf @بTlj ީ@R iU, A@ا BAS PSF ZS @ SU S |

cO Z sv U v jq s r U@ @a jq ZcU Bc aɦ ~ @S @r U S | g ZS 42j Acc c rK a, 43j T^^ UZ UZ U@ T wa | S TS q A@ AScXo | aɦ @ew @SAS gK rFw@ gU OZ ZAS, @Bq ZcU@ AS cAr SɦOɦ @c qha R AaU S | ~Bɰ A^ U U@ j@v Acrɮ AaU s g @S ~er g̩f ~Ao@ AA Uq g PSFcASf R BS j@sw qeB AcAo @c, v ~^TSR U S jce Zc s cT sXo R U S | U ~S@ - w\ jZS j@v A ~a |

Ar sF SR qha SAB cc AaU - AS BSS s BS qeB Q sA ASR , R ewT ިJABcA TB-cFcm | q AAS T @ esw @ OAaUS - j@Tn cAUS ~ɮ T aɦ @S sF AAS @SAS SAS | BS c^ TS ^ @ jq T @ZS BS sF, @ZS ~Uɰ gc AAS cc Ar sw mS @ OaS | jAS s^ U SAS |

cT A AO^qS Sf s^ j BS TAaU 1942j, qeB cASf sm Aa v wAaU | A@ا qToF O@ W wa | 1944 Swɰ s qvAU FA @ ީS a, TAUAS Tp | qeB R ~TA@S AcTS BTAS T O@ cT U oe @ TZ, rU aSa sha | BS TS ZS r^ Tɮw sXo A@ Wa | c A@av SAB O, A@av PSFoFQ ~LɯA̩ U AO^qS Sf A g b@ @ Ai@ U | A@ا ZSR Z wU BAS Oqa ASB PSF AS b@ | r SRB Sd Acw@ g AU AaS @ ̮ c Ay Z |

g sXo BAS rK ~cAo s B AaU, TkU ~S@ @H ToF BAS PSFXoFQ TScpA j@v | c T jce SAB BSq ZAaUS BAS @ةv j@rrf | BS wMc R BAS rL aɦ TS @SA@ s S | j@v AXo^ ASU BS v cUc T TSA@ l̩R @T AaU | qeB sZS ASB PSF c cFcm gUgc @a, ZS BAS ASB T PSF ASB ̮ ASB AS sXo @ ~AcA ZAaU | R oH AaU s sXo qeB@ A cU ZU @vq sXo OUc r c | qeB ATި TUn Usw jS ZS @ @AT R qU m A c @AaU | @AT BAS ~Q@p @a | aɦ @AT A qU T j@v c r ~Ao@ @c wMcvq BAS @a c TS AaU | @Bq @AT AQة qeB PSF jA ~w ATި sR @v gcUq S |

j@ca qeB O \va | wc B @ ~S@ A@a ArZ ASa | AcTSrA ca ~S@ | cT-~ɮT ~mm@ Acr sXo ~Agک @ ~w @ mmF-en^ coS ASa - s BAS jce ~Bɰ-A^ @ AS | j sXo B U S | r^ Tɮw BAS PSF AS sR UwU | r SRB PSF OUS ~Ao@ US | AAS PSF @AT ~Bɰ A^ ީ@ A˩ @US | A@ا ~A ~\AS BSF | g̩f BSU BAS ~ɮT ~nTH @a | ~AO qeB \v ~nTH @U - ~Bɰ A^ MB cT A s coF U |

BS ASB jq Acl@U SAB @ S g A@ ~ @STq TS A OqU S | ~Bɰ A^ MB Aa v ~ɮ coF U | j@ ca o of of cT a Aa TU A Aި ~cAo j A@av Pms U | 1944 U cA@ AS@v BAS R ~Bɰ A^ MB ʨS ~cAo MJJaAaU jce j@v WJAv AaU | ZS SS cp SAB cc cU UwUS s ~QrA AB@ c d@, ~Bɰ A^ rK ~cAo ewT OAU sc | cc AAS cf sXo @ cU UwUS | v sAs AaU A@S v jZS ~T Q AcO @ c S | A@ا jq T ʨS c g̩f ~Bɰ A^ sw , U MB eZF 50,000j iAaU | @ ZO BSF ZSR U@ v@, wS A sF @a |

BAS cU ~cm sw AS ~R A@a Aco SAB ~ɰ @ AaUS | ~Bɰ A^ @ mofS mf@pA Ac j@BS BAS Bk ~Bf @بTlj @بS, jv SAB cAS OA AaU | jc BAS qeB AcdXo j@ AAgrS PSF c ArA AS rK ~cAo j@BS Bk US | A@ا ZSR AAS BAS gJR gUUS S | cUUS, j Bk Tv S AS sZS ~SAS, ZS jJ@ @A gc Bk Ac wH @ sS | rK ~cAo vR U | ~Bf @بTl-@ @U j@Av @p mf@pA A@, jqvq RS qha AaU | AS ZS cf sXo @ gcaS | AS BAS r^ Tɮw ASB cJO cFm |

1945 U wɦq qeB ʨS A@ jwU | ~Bɰ A^ BAS q ~ Aa wU | SAB BSF jS AaU, A@ا AAS ASB PSF Jv sR Ai@ @US | AcrK @ J AO^ AaU, jq AcrpU ToF IJA AS ABTxv @S Acް S | UQf mATSS ʨS ɽ Ac s OqUS | cA@ SAB ~SF PSF T @ TMUTS wU | ZS @ vS cq@ cFe@@ AS sR | ZS SAB @U@ Fw BSF oSFcɰ A Ac BSUS | ~S@q ~U T - @Bq cA c AaU | j ToF ~S@ cf BfcS ~S@ ^A @AaU - wS-c A@a AccpA ASB cq AaS | @ @R cUaS ~S@, @@BS TpFR AaU - ~S@ @ ~AT cɰ AUT | @ SAB ި gw @ ASAaUS |

jv WvAaU T T | ZS @ BUq Tɮ ~cAo Aި ~Bf @بTlj @B U v@@A Bwɦ @, PSFcASf l gJv ަ S R | A@ا qeB ZS cT @ BAS ި c @ Aha, RA@SR ~TA@S TU @a - SAB cI US BAS ~ J @S @B Uwc S | ~r ~U ZUS sZS Ar TɡA ~nTH @ BS sXo STU | AS BAS @@ ~So @US J@ BAS cASf TɡA i - AAS ZS Aw ArS @a ~LT޻H @ sF˻f cS | j BAS AB U | AS aɦ cA@ ~Bf @بTl @ @c R @f@ RS sw c AS B\S d U | Aި ީS ~w ZS ~Bɰ A^ sXo BSF j@Av m@ m䯺 mS @ U | UZ qU, g mofS SwA@ j@AS BSc TASި, @AT j ~LS R A@p AaU |

16q ~wmv SAB Aި @ cFe@@ wUS | ZS @ UcU qwS wUS AS | A@ا ZS Zc R wU s ~Bf @بTlj cq@ AS sc sSF s jS R @ AaU, R sAS | SAB aɦ Tn j@BS f Bw U j@ BAS c^Ψ ݩ | TU Bw ASR TF pA U | SAB cr A@a SɰS sAhaU | ~S@ ABASK aS U o v v@ q SR U | SAB qUS TB Acc TS | S aɦU Ac@U JOv | ɩv BSF AgݩST -Se AcTSc^ ST RS vU ɩ @vUS |

~w AS qwS @ Ric T S ~Aco AaU g BSF | q jc sn ~w cr A@a ~mrm SAT R U (BAS ToF SAB Hwf c^Ψ ~gc AaU S - g̩f Tq@ ~S@q ro @̩), SAB v@ ɩ ަU S | g JOv sn @ S qq MJaU cU |

jAS A@a j@v wwU AhaU cU ^ @ wAaU, A@ا @U@Ai WJv Zc j@v U S | jA@ Zc R wU s TSOA AjS WJAv ɦɩA MJaS @ ArS j sc ~w, SqU SAB sR S |

~ɦqv T S iU | g cAr - ި SR 1500 ATv - ިvq Ric BSF BS U | S ~@r iU Tn 30 ATv | O AcmH | cJA@ jAS Z wU | S TAv ~aɦ Z ަ TS A@v ~S o wU | BAS TB @S @FSA ZU UA ަ ZAS@v vU Aav J R BT ~S Uw wU | AAS TAv wA v TUUS, A@ا ~ US | TS R SAB ZS g | aS A@v TU gA, ZS A cS ~c | R BS TS ~S iU cUS - ~S@vq ި wUS | cc vU Aav SAB wR UwU - RS @ ~S UwU | TB TS RS @ޥU c @ aA AUS |

~ cq@ ɮɩU AS sR U srfW c | SAB TZ R rf Zc ި wAaU | A@ا LLR ɽ AcAm ZUS s J S R AO^rA ~Qب^ ~a | ɮɩU ɩ 9v T SAB TpF U | TpF ~\@U ~w s^ AAS TB TS @ cU J@ r R l AAaUS | sZS J e U ja, ZS AAS j@c cUS TB | @a U@ ~^B @ AAS BU OqAaUS | wS-c ^ @aS s AAS j@c TB@ mH @AaUS | RS q gq @ةZAS WAS AaUS, v ~T cc ZAa |

~T w\ jq ~erv ~AT qha @ Acmp gc AUZUT, @H SAB TpF c^ kH AccH c j@v R s S | AAS cJO ~aS, j Bc j@@U TI TIq aɩ (wS-c cq Acmp ~UOS ~a) | jZS co ~ a S, @H AAS cJO @U J cݮ ɩ 105 ca | jZS Bɩf S c qha c QT co J @ة S - ~ sJ RS@ Bfc^ OS, J S Acq OS |

@ew @U BU @@UfS TAUT Ufw AA c s | A@mS Ac ZS @q B AaU | ceU @ T^fg ީS rlO^ BU sc ~cFcA q | ZB SABTAS SS T^fg A cF ɲA@ r U BU WU @a | f cA ~ɲA@ UAU c OA gU ATAUaS (ASB QT aɦ ~ @S ~ɰr A @SASq J rXo AaU S) |

SAB c^ c Zc @ jAS Oq sAhaU, J TpF Zcv aɦ ~ A @U S | 25j ~wmv @U@ɩ @wB rlO^ gq TpFecɰ US | J T AOAi c A jZS Xop @UT S |

j-T @ew cArgw Sq BU @ aɦ waS | rlO^@ Z c @H oS AAS SAB gq cU | BS R BTAS @ ~Bɰ A^ O r s - sw AaU cU gUAxv R ɦ N@ U@ | rlO^ jq q U M @ @ BS - @Bq @ew U@ aɦ UR AAS SAS | SAB TpF @ J ST wA S U S, jce ~\ rlO^@R TA | cUv RgU c @ew R TAUT Ufw S sZS @Sgcq j@T US S, qT qeU OAOU T^fg ީS U, jce oST^f ~FvUf-c g cBSfS gv cFcm @US @^f ~qSg BSF | rlO^ @ew ~SFT AASAo Ac AScAO S |

RgU-c cF˻ qeB @ g AiAaUS F mvɦ nf, F ~U^ R F A@ U^@ | q U g̩f S ~UOS R U @ Acrgc cHS @ ݩ AOl AaU, @H ~T i@ ~S@q T B^SAS | wS-c cq c @ ~a, A@ا ~T w\ @ػ @ةv BAS S | jv cUq c s jqc ~UOS U s ~^cA T^fg wiS , rlO^ q g F Ac @B @AaUS |

c j@v w\ S cU Aa S - ASB mpA ToF ~a cU ~ A@a w IU Iɦ UgS TU Aa S cU | OAOU-c g̩ Fw @ W Acof AaUS (qeB TBF ީS Wvc BSF ~AT TTSF Tv T^f qAS) | w^fBf@ AO@U ~o-U A@ cU Ack @ jaS | @Bq A@ U^ nsf g ~ɮ J W ~A AaU | UTxv ZS AAS Acof U F - j@AS cUUS, g̩f TU @ s @AiS, v ~T Agk Ac F mvɦ ASBq ZaS | nf yTg Bcc S, ԩZS@ @ASf cTQ cU qha sA TSSf F @, U ~r@A AAS ި @ASfvq cUcS | OAOU-c O @ wAaUS |

~Bɰ A^ @ O c g R cU wAaU | MB r SRB TZ @BS S@ rA ~o sZS @ AcO @ AXo^ ASU, ZS@ rBɦ AcQg @ ~T TS ~a | rArUf A@U R ~SFT rS@ cUgq rq Accɰf Q A@U Ac TH @ O @US s R ~ɮU j@ mofS @ PAS@ - J AcO sA @ , ~^BA@ ~qS ~S @ c, qeAB ~qS S | ~crFq j@ wF U S - RS cq AЩ US - A@ا r ~cm Z @ T@بc @U | ~Bɰ A^ Zc ZS r BS wa | BNc\ި aɴAS PSF Ac @U | @AO c^ @ SMcASf j@v BB cA Aw r R @TS wU | qeAB UTxv jvAU c WKH @US, g ~T ZU rK a (A wT qS qA qB ~)|

j@v ݩ ~c^ @ T jU | cUgq rq jq WvS ~\@U T sS | ZS aAc Zc ZS ɩ AST (vAUAgrS sw AaU S - ~S@ Acrɮ @c S) | ~T r AST Z wAa | r @iZ U@ - ~\ @ZS @ɩ S | AST ZUT cUgq rq rcsn | UZ UZ U@, بU TU aaA rco R | il r cUU, j@q cU T , j@q cU T | wUv @J wU j@v sS |

j mofS en^ WvS wS-c cq Acm ~a, ~AT ~ ިSdA @UT S | SAB w\ rK a | 1946-47j @ASf sJ BSS S J @R AS cUc (cUAa , ~T i@ ToF ~S@q ZS Zc ~\ cݮ) | c mH @A Aq, @U@ɩ ̽w sZS cq A@mS ~AmL TS ASU, ZS rlO^ ~^US @US s ceU@ ި A@mS UU OUc S - ceU@ ~c gw @ @ | ~^US U AaU |

jq T@ v @ASf TS ަa - ZS@ R A@a AO R sc | @U@ɩ Aro Ac Ac wTr ZS A^ TUTS R ~@F ~FO @a | TAUT mvU Ai ~T @a ~r SR @ gca | BcUU ZS A\Uf T^fg - Zc av jUS | q T vS TݰS J cp Tv TS ~a, gqc, @U ^F sF^ ~AT A\Uf AaUT | gcAaUT, gAcKF s ~ sXo S , BSF mofS g̩cK @f @ pAcf sF @ | ~ ~B jZS j ~T@ cU U - gq gq@ ~Wɩ @ Sq | j UB @ AZ ? AS ZS SAaU @@ AS BSF - A@ا ~B s^ J UB q wU |

j co -AS WvS | vS Sv W AЩBf cU jaS | j@AS ~w cUAaUS, Ԯ@ @ sA @B S ~T coF Ac rɮS PSFcASf A c | @f @c S @c TUc ~Ao@ ZS ~T @c S | j U@ QبNo q AaU | ~B J cp TIZS j@A@ @ @ش cUU, TBجިT @JR wAU OAU ? j@v wUTU pA U - TS s S | @ةU w wUTU S c^@ JAO av jU | AcrpU OT iU | jTS T il AZ TS cA Ai R j@v | B@r SH mvB @ cA v@ Tk aS A@ OU jaS, Pci sq, Pci sq - P@ @ J c ~ | QH j@BS Bxv g j AЩBf@ Z a | S TS - wv ~ɴv, wv ~ɴv | cFv i U | B@r TqnS U ASUS | Acf AA^ wUwU, @MS \U TO - ~w ~q, ZJ TF P@خ c@ cv F | A@aQH AЩBf ~c @ d @US | 1942j cf B@r v AS ZAaUT |

kc A@mS U AS | 1971j @ASf cCAU qA ~@Av wMcT @ASf | A@ا R jZS U @ - SqU ceUr qAɮ Sɦ c | v ~T Q ~S^BS@ c S | rZ TABc@ ~AT ~BR rXo @A |





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