cf^S R BfcSS^ : @Ac An@ Av AcrK eZF

cT gOs



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cTS c^ AcK j@Av An@ Av AcrK eZF | eZFɰAv cr ިS | UQF jTS BS cFA, sJ AS ~UOS j ATH a, s o ASq ceU AF ~@Av ~Uɰ rZ PA @ s | ~jc T r ha, j c^ BS @f ? j ~AT SS @f @ cUc jce jqc ިS OS TUOS @ @f Ug ; j ~AT -O @ cAU | vq j-UZ gkAT@ @ s |


  


~UOF An@Av ST @Ac | eZFɰAv A cFA snT cf^S i@ب R BfcSS^ r | eZFɰAv T @r snT 1941 (ިS:@r 2002) R 1954 (ިS:@r 1998), @r@ : Ac@\ @rSf |

wɦq Ay @ SR s@, s j-c^ ~AT cf^S i@ب ~c BfcSS^ r @ػ AcrK A@a cUc S | (~^Q B c cU @ ިScpA S @c O @c |) ~T ~UOS TkU AcK TUOSTkU@ @ة@U c^ TUOS | ~jc i@ sA ABɮ @S s jqc mSToSF cA^@ j TUOS @ (cf^S R BfcSS^ AcK) ~T ccFv @f @ @q A@a rS wU S, c ~T ASd @ aɦ wA Sq |

jq UZ BS @f ? @T BS | j@, j@Av An@ kH j@Av eZF Rv UgBS@ | @H, j@Av T R @Svv ި Ov ~S@ZAS o | AScɻAO c^ Bɩf emH S | ~UOF eZFɰAv ~T SS c U@ UZ AZ | j@A@ sTS jv cI s s j@ j@Av B^ j@q U@ X j@ j@ @T gc gAc AaU ; TSq jR cI s s j@q T j @Uq j@q An@ jJ AcAg^ BSrS TT BSS | jq TAv oTn ASB @Hq AO@K@ |

q, gU-T^ AcO j@ j@ sw j@ j@ @T gc @ | :Z AcK, ceU TUOSɮAF rXo ATH A@Al ~AA̽ | ~T empA rXo cFv dLkH | TUOS Qn sv ~S@ T cgFɮR TS (~^ ~T -q ) | TUO@ J TUOF cFAAv US @f ATH Qب R fS v, ~T T, ~M ɮA@ S | -BSF ww rXo cHf A @U Zc A@a QA cU TS S | ~O ~UOF eZFɰAv AcAg^ OS jq rXo jce mc@ة WSWv AcAg^ ATH cTS | TB AcK jq, s BfcSS^ r eZFAv jqBɩf rXo-AcU cUer cAr | ~AT ASAEO s jq @v ~AT ~w @ ~^B @ ̩T S | ~jc Z sha, s AF jce TUOS o @ػ ~T sv AmvARvq, sv jQn ZvAS, jAS jqc OS ަ Aco ~crFq jq s jAS ~T jq q cFA s kL PA a | cA^@ R | ~jc l ~ArsF jce ScBɩ rXo AcwAU AcU @ ASB@ A Zv B a | ~T TkU rF, q kL sw AS jq Av dLkH eZF j@Av sk c ASQ TUOS @ | jce jTS @@Av ɮA@ @ cU, (s ~AT ~w @R AAS c ASAS) s ~S@ @S SS (jce Ai@) rSc |

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wɦ @ة@U USTkU@ @ cAU | j@ j@Av eZF AS ~Uɰ @ ~UOS @c | gkAT@ cɻfH @Svv s-@ cUAaUT, Zc j@v AO @Rq R wU S | @H AcrK eZF R dH j AcK TS A@a PcAOnF Sq | :Z @ | BfcSS^ eZFAv ASdH @T PcAOnFfS | j@v @H ~crFq jq, s (AcrK , i US) BfcSS^ r @T@ ~F^ e@fH ( j@v @H ~crFq jq, s @@Av c^ aɦ J ~ @S wF ZS @Ar AS) jce J @ػ Ay @ s-@v @ cU s, R eZF cAr S | Qn, ~T TS , -eZF -@T p eZF R AO AaU | @sQn Z sha, eZF U 114 (, i) jce 148 (BfcSf޵f gpA cɰ A ; Bf, ) | BfcSS^ r@ U@خTQ AB @ ɰ@ ~F^ cAr ~w AaU cU rS s | -T BSR AaU | jAS -@ m @ ~Sgc @ @AiS | c O ~ TUOS j@ cm S | v BfcSS^ r eZF cc AU s Z sha | ~S@خT j@q UZ ToF |

, i eZF US Bf, eZF UZ@ c ~˻ ScfS | ~Ao@er Qn jq ScfS gcv TS Aco AS | BfcSS^ r s @f@T cFAnTf jce ~SSFoH q cHf O l ScfS UZ@ U (jce ɰ@) ZUq @SAS s j ToFT @f ATH mc@ة b@ a OSAU ToF | s ~^ ~QT ~S@H AcdXo J j Acɰ (cXoc c (c, c) @ةp@ @dHASoS, @بT̵S, FS - @cF TUOS m멻cF) | q ~^ gAAcU cc sAASg cAXoT co ia BfcSS^ r eZF |

~Q, cf^S i@ب eZFAv jq mc@ة ɩ @ Tq cU OU | ZS cFAw rXoS ~S@c Z R sha | A@ا ~Ao@er Qnq Ay @ cU R a rXo @Hv @f | jce ToF A @ة@AU AH TAmy cFAw l TSgc AO R wU (~cS i@ب, T OMof, ~U UZAU sTS) s Bɩ gAAcU cF@بU @ p@ | jq cF@بU cɻ@p H ~r@ ATn, Sr jce ~TU^ c- BfcSS^ r AcK@ c^-nf | j-AcK ~T oHv jq@T | cf^S i@ب mc@ha@ ɰ@ OS gcq k ZAaUS | kL cɦU pA j@v mha cUq ݩ jv J Q c AaU | BfcSS^ r ɰ@ T ˻@F ~S@ @T, aɦ J AcK AUZ S, jTS U@ ~S@q ɰ@ cFAwgc AS@vBS | sJ sF aɦ An@Av ~OU | @Bq jJ cɰ R c AS | :Z @ | c r WK cq (@Ac cT) @ ~T BS Aa s gK TZoF, SSf gMAT@ TZ T@ػ-cɰf ZS BfcSS^ qAɮ-OS Ac TUOSq @S | -@T UZ Av-j@Av @U T^ S |



     


^ ~A | Av eZF ToF 13 ca ˻@F | jq @H, A@ec ɰ@ OS O U, ~c ~A˻@ @H cf^S i@ب eZFAv AcS AccAB | BfcSS^ eZFAv S | ~T cTq TS , AcS ~A ~oH AA@ AUU | jce S @U, ceU AFn AcS nTAccS cU j@Av vv fA ~AcUc UZ AO | cf^S i@ب eZF @-mofS sw AcS Z sc -- j@T j@v r ~T AaU | -~r ATvU S cv | c BfcSS^ eZF R wU j@Ao@ jce AO@K@ jce ~F^ TTA@ @@Av AcS | SgS R Acrg̩f cq | w\S ~TU ~U (qeAB rNAU UQ @ T) R SU v, jce : c @ @ةp@ @Ar @ة@AU TA@ n | jqc TA@ n ~AmL @ ~AT @S@U ASAS | j ToF a j@Av SAU jce j@Av An@ | jce ST S @A w TZn cU ~STS | (@ش BSU o cS |) An@AU ST c^, q@AU RcU, mmFrf, Twcf cewU qFA jce AmS O ~Ao@ةɻ, qvɮ AcA\e | j-aɦR a Av-c j@Av ~oH O AcS | F-mofS g̩cK cpl ޡcKf A@\S, c @ ~rcɰ R wTfH ^S Bɩf cpl @\ T v | (~T avcU aaAc kc s ASBAU ZS , @ TS ަa |) T@ OToFT gK R @Svv j@Av Bfc^ aAc (gAcKFl-j f@f j@Av Ar aAc T) Z R wU |

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cf^S i@ب eZFAv @ػ @@Av @ jq ~oF cUc | jq eZF j@Av ^ A j@Av ި ɰ ɩ ToF cf^S i@ب-j @J qAv, s A cU wU, eZFAv d | q ~A AAO q, w, rfA@ cU, TpF ~ɮ^ ATU j@v Zc c T vFBA@ Tk @ U | (c Aa r- ATAU ZU ~ Ay c) | SQnީS Bɩf aJ @ cU ~ q v@ @v qha @a S | sJ AcAUBT cFv cIS, A@ec AST lf, ~^ J @a j ~A c A | jq ~qAAv @ ~AT BAS S | ɰ@ qSvFqrS cr gU cUq jAv jZS mS a | ~F^ cAXoT @B a |

T OMof R ~cS i@ب Av UZ ToF mpAOH Av AO@K@ p^ R wU | UZ oSAv j@c TZ @ ~ɰU | ~SAUAR | (BɦɮJ@ o A@ec FABl @ةp@ AcSɰAcf TZoF Ql@ m멻cF |) ~T TS mpAOH AUAcXo @ mvqU Ac jAv ~F^ s jce AOwf |

T OMof UZ ToF j@Av dLkH qAʩ ~a (p: 12) Ac i@ب ZS@ @U@ɫq gK @ cUS S | @U@ɫq gK A@ T gK ? sA , c ccFAv AHoSswF | Ac i@ب O cFAw v ~S@AU lTZ sTS ZU AwAaU, ~S@ QfH o A@ا AcU AwAaU | T oAv ~SFT | ~AT gKɩLL AЩ Sq | j-AcK wgf̩ ~UOS ~T QT cq | @cU T ɲA@ i U, A@a ATH OfS ceU aaAc ( Sv@ cU T) Z U, AvS U gpA S ~T TS a s Rq gK ToF j@ oS H AaU | j@Av empA ( sq ZU, TF, J-cAU @ S @S), j@Av T gco AO AaU | WvSOn Ac i@ب cU ~W q Tm @iT oU ATr s | ~T TS j ~A gwFBS@ WvS | Ac i@ب gK J ASB @ cU gK | J gcS @r @ cS | ceU ~S@ TSK gcS @ p@ j@Av Bw cA^ | qc ~SF gcS @r BSF ~SF gK s | gɻwFcr, ASr r@ rK @ d @ Ac i@ب TpF s^ jTS @S cFA AaUS S AsAS q O Ag cU cSF ToF Am JA ~SF gK @ cU S | aɦ ~T ~OS~gFm TB ~UvSAvg cFv @S mSq Sq | ~B@ @F ceU j s A^f gc, v jq ~gc kH @q O | j@Av BA mgAc@ TAO O, j@BS ~ATSc cFAw v g ~Wɩ S |

Av eZF ATAU UZ ~T T, ~UO^ ~T ancm R cf^S c^Av | cCAU TB cf^S ~L@r jce nTAccS @Svv-j j@Av l@p cHS (AXf ~oF, p: 18-20) | cFAw ~Agک j@Av II TA (T ~oF, p: 17-18) | pf ~oF AFSwf ~\cݮf ArAQة cCAU Q cf^S s gkAT@Av @f AaU, j@Av cFAw TkUFS | AA@ @SvvAv Ay @ cU a | AF Qn sw-A qSAAAAv @T-@ @fgc B @ wU (~^ ~er) -- j-AcKv ~^ ~AT ~w @R AZAS | cf^S ASB UZ ~crF Aa | A@ا @R Ay @ cU AS | jce p: 22-j AFAcO @A, ~ɻl j@Av mvFɦ PA c s-@ AAS cUaS, Av dLkH @ | ~cw AcU S cU Q @ sc cS @ s |

jq c^ F@Av c@F BSf | F@Av c@F j@Av ccF ~a | s ~SF c@F ިSdA S | ccFU Ay | s cU ha, m@fݩ ~Smf@s | jce ި c^Av UZ@ @ZS TkU AcKAv @ k sS S | c^ OS @ sJ OS, J BSF jAv ~crF iF R AO |

p: 99-101-j Av ~EOs@T cU @Ac -- ofO^ @ jce ~AO^F S OS | ~JAZ, nިv cfH gpA rN w, R ~JAZ, a R T, aAc R @Ac ATU T @AcAv@ Rq @بT̵S @dHASoS wnf cU TS | cf^gc TA ~^US oS PAS@ ~SFT ~AO^F@بT S UZAv ިS:@Ar | UBBS@ @T cU jce cf^S i@ب OSPrUf j@Av ~QT, l@v ~S@H |

~AT Oncf cf^S pA UZAv m@fݩ BU | ASOm cU ~SgkA R ~Agک j@Av ATrU | OAv ~oFq cf^S pA @ػ ~UOS, @ZS cf^S i@ب ASB @, @ZS rA^AS@ةS @T@ ~\ cHS, @ZS cFAw ~SgkA Tp ~AgcFA | J @Ac Tq ~oFAL@ (c, c- @) B, r^ jce ~Am@ |

sATSf cf^S aAc c^Av ~S@U SS @ (~T @a SS) SUT | aAc R MAH@ة AcK eAQ ~UOSAv (p: 42) Zcq SS @T @ cU a | Ac i@ب AOnAr\f Ac ~SAgک AO j@Av AcAr p^ ToFT cU -- gc ~c@ Uw ww gA @r sw j@T @ UZ s | c^Av ~wwɦ II, TZ @ T mha^, cUfU, mgAc@, ԮB Ar̰J Ac i@ب aAc Tq j-c^ H |



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cf^S i@ب eZF US BfcSS^ r eZFAv c ~er cU | j @p H ~r@ ATn, gOs jce Sr c^nf | jq ASAv c^ sAASg Ay ccF ZJB c @ @AiS | ~F^ AxvTxvU jce ~ AF gH cc AcA @ @ | @@Av H Aq |--

jq gwF r, @Ac@T ~A˻@ haU sZS ASAEO ~ɦ~A ...(~r@ ATn : p: 90)
UZ@ A@ jTS @S r c T @ BSS sZS @cFOS ~A˻@ A@ @ Zc UgBS@ ?


TS ~crF mgc-AcAo (, g: p:: 82)
jv A@ UZ@ T ? SA@ AO@U c BS @ ? j-@ TS @f ? @f@T mgc ? il iU @S ?

BfcSS^ r Sf @Ac, AAS AcSf SS
(, g: p:: 82)
TS ha A@a j@v ccF jZS @UR @ | :Z AcK, Sf-AcSf- -- gpA @ة@U e cc T ToF @UR U A@aTn Ay AS |

ԩ, @\S wAcw ~ݫ @c , @\Sq mr c WKH c-A@a ~UA@ة s | (, g: p:: 83)
TS ha oTOf ACS FTVv @ Xop |

Դl@p AO TABɮ SfA-TBSfA-cFASfA ~c W@ Z S, BfcS-SfA r-ɩ @ | (, g: p: 83)

q SA@ ? ~T ~S@ Դl@p AO ~Ao@f @ TS ަa, sJ SfA cFASfA ~c AS cr gUq T WATaS | O ~oF cU j@Av SFɮ ~S@ ~wq @Ar AwAaU |

rK c ~^ A@a @Ac ToF ASB@ ~AT cr @ Aa | sAR j-c OS ~T@ ok ШAUA ~ cSU S-j T-ATH ~ha^ @S, -- UR cU A @S-TS@ ~gF @A AS U j-@AcAUR ~w Tq mha cU i@c | (S, w p: 106)
cA@a@ mha i@c j q c A@ ? s ToF AAS ASB@ cr @ aS, -@ػ -O @ Ay @ cUq A@ s S ?

~TU^ c (s Za TpF R p: 12) gkAT@ BfcSS^ FH s-TAv -AcrKH YfS AcrK sA @Ac To i@ Y @ػ @ @ c@FAv UQ @ T | ~T Acrɮ @v ~^A@gcq cU | ASdH r@ ~rcy pA ~mha Wv | Qn, ~T TS , q ~mha@ c^ ~@ c TS @r @v AS^ rgS S | j@^ ~ɦU @q gU | ~^ sAS ~r Ia, AS | S U @Ac BfcSUANo SAgTT TpF ~cF gcS ~SF c gcS W A jq @^ esw fAc -- Bɩf rNc^ TFSABT ĩ @vS TrA@U |

jq eZF j@Av \UZswF A cXoc c (p: 137-139) esBSAv | BfcSS^ r s j̮qB Zɩ ɦ A^U AUZS jce ШAUA Rq ATH @v@بAv @ة, cU S AU ~STS @ @AiS | (~^ qT Bf. @Ac aS j@T OS rT QF ~Acy sɻ ) | jq oS F cFAw UR ɰ@ fAɮS AO@ | j-oS @B ZvAS ~a | AcA@ ZvAS ~a | v-R j@@T A | sJ wcKH @aS, J ggwf jce j-oS ~Agک ~qAxvq @ cS |

~ j@Av wcKHoTf TkUFcS @B BfcSS^ r AcAg^ @Ac @r @U R mS AU@Av | jq ArT U @Ac nTAccS c^ j@v oH R wU | ɮA@ة (@Sv@خv) -- cFv BdA | jce j@Av ~ɩSf̮ AU@ ToFT j-@ػ ~S@ cAr oH R s, ~S^ mpAT cF@بU s R c S | ɰ@@ oSFcɰ | (Q^, BfcSS^ r eZF j@c wɦ A@ BfcSS^ r @Ar AOAiv ɮA@ة s @f, ~AT A@aTn cI AAS |)

jc @@Av c^ @ cUc s ToF SS oS A@a Z R wU | SS @v ~crFq j@v ~Xg | cFAnTf cU gU | Tv @, jq UZAU m^ oS | jce -BSF jAU c^ ~\ @Av @ cUc |

BfcSS^ r eZF ~dH @ c^ BfcSS^ r ~Am@ة | Ay c ccF | rXo UR gA ~mha ccFv@ b@ AS | TST Bwl a A@aAS AAS @TT Bw gTH @AaUS jce ިS Sc l TST Bwq A AwAaUS | (p: 97) Zc ~\ @ BfcSS^ @A j@Av Ai@ cHS jce ASsɻ | pAcf Aw @B Sq -- jq @ cU Tm eA@ l jce FT A@ r A Bw @ WTc o AsAS S @AaUS, cU cUF, q @Ac TSAcc ɩA eWAv AS | (p: 97-98) sAkH @, Ay jce ~m j@Av ccF | ~ A@ v Ai@ m qAɮOS S -- ~c j@Av Ai@ TkUFS jce m ccF | J @Ac BSA S -- -@ cU a A@ا Sr T AS AxvTxvAUAv @ @S O Sq | j-BSF jJ @ S qha @, cI O @ Ac̽ S jce ~\ ArT @@Av m ccF BS s |

BfcSS^ r ިS:@Ar @Ac @ c^Av | c Ai, c ~UAO | ~T TS , j@Av ~F^ cFAw UZ | A@ا ɦɩA ަU cHf-Bɩf ̮F O ~O TS | mvqU A@ @ ~Xg @T m@f, ~Xg gcq ~m | ~S@ ccF d Ai@ @ rK S, ~S^ T, @\S, Tvɬ, c@FwiS BAvU j@Av A@د OS Ri | jce ~S@q s-@ cUaS, J @Ac gK R ~A@ jZS-R kHgc Amϩ | j-c^ s @S AcrK rF AaU Ay, A@ا q rF TB @Ac mS jce gkAT@ ASH Bɩf j@Av wUTU AcK | j-@ػ j@BS @vqAe @Ac ccF BS wU | gU @ | cF, Rv@بq |


BfcSS^ r eZF cXoc c fW gkAT@ BS c, c@ Z wU | j@BS @بA ca cm OS TS A@r AsAS r jce ~ASU ST@ q @\AS@ c^Ψ eU ToFT BfcSS^ r @ػ l@UfS i@خTB oH c^ ~T BASaS | jq eU Tv@ @ @ cU@خUg TS (~AT q U A); c eU AcK Ac (1924-Swɰ) BfcSS^@ AScOS @v j@BS @بA ca A@r Q qTAg | AXf c, c AH cm R AH TS c, c sJ @a ceU TUOS AF cgc Hf | sTS p: 79- Acc jce iFe rNv@ ca AS ls @ػ ~UOS @v cAXoTS A@BS UQH | s ~T gU Uw, ~EOs Uw aS @f oS AvU gkAT@ ~a, AccH | j-@T ~UOS c, c @a @ cc R wa | ~cSf^S wF @ػ, @بT @B qFA | ceU TUOS AF cXoc c j@Av l@p ~cS |

ceU AFBw fW T @Ac An@ j@v dLkH gkAT@ AaU | Ac@\ @rSf Fw Av eZF ~T, ~˻l B^ i@ MJa wU | J oSFcɰ BAS ~ɩ jqZS rK @UT |






jq UZ ~S @TS UwU ?




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