FAv TS R cXoc c : Ar@w Av R @AcgcS @Ac

 

UfS ~qݨc





cAS ~w OwT j@ ިS cq @S ~@ml ~Acy @A r An@ 1974-U j@ AFeZF s ToF cXoc c ~T @AcgcS UZAv Z ArA̩ q | ~AA̽@T sL @ ZAaUT cU A@S BAS S, ~T cq mk @ eZFAv j@AS A s | ~S@ ZJBR Rq AcrKeZF c cXoc c Rq UZAv ~ qAS | 1997-U Swɰ @Ar cXoc c OScUf c Z ~AT A@AS R j@ W Ag rK @A ; ~T wT cA ~ب^ ~c@r Ag J ~S@U SFɮ R w\ cq U @ TS | cXoc c aɦ ~ @S @S cCAU UZ@ UZ ~TS AS AS, ~ ocA@gc, Aa cU TS S ; A@ا @cU Rq OSAv @R ~^gk AZ S | ~B jAS j k c wUT w^@ TA UZ (~T @AcgcS, cXoc c ; kn R esBS T^f c Ae, Ac@\ @rSf, @U@ɩ, 2001) -- s @Ac Ac Fw J ASNcqT B^AS UQF @Ar |

b@ T Av @wBAv Zc ~T cXoc @Ac An@ @ TS AaU | gcAaUT Ar@w Av@ TU @q c cXoc @Ac An@ sn d | gU gAC AUS cXoc ASBq :

AO @S-j@ Pci@ ZAaUT ~^r j@Av qeAB An@ -- O A@av rK ASr-r@f, qJv-C TUv @ AcmA̩ OZ A@ ~aS rAU, Uc w ~Q ~J@ "qAv" ArST | ~AT BASS vq FAv TS-mAީ Ar@w "qAv" A@S -- ZS q AcZFɩ An@Av ST ASAS | A@ا vR AaU o @Ac ~ A@Al @Ac-en^ wF | STSAv \v-\v Z ~T TS ToF j@v r@AS BwU | j@T j@Av @Acɮcm An@ ceU A@ c @ s S ?

(~T @AcgcS, p. 10)


Avq AaU Rq @wB ; A@ا ~T pb Acrɮ AcAr TU ~S@H S, ~oAS@ ceU @Ac ASAq c @ U @Ac B^ ~ cXoc ~oAS@ TSS R dAO ASoɻH @ OAn | ~^re@ s @wBq AAS ZS S @S, @cU Rq j@Av \UZ A @Ac An@ Xgc-Ac@r cp^ cI c S | cO c @, @Ac cXoc j@ w pA ; jAv cXoc j@@ j@w FT U | Ar@w Av oS Fɽ sAR FAv TS, @wBAv @r, A@\S R @U SS@T AccS ~er SS coH cFA | j U j@ r@ Av ~SF r@ Av Acv l UQ @ s | @Ac An@ ToF sTS j@v AcrK oS OAn XgɮS wɦ @ TA R ~Skc ~AcOAU AZ, Av v ~T c S | FAv TS sAR @Ac, @TɻFwf R ~oAS@ @Ac Ar swF ɰ@ AaUS, cXoc cTZf Acv Ag R pArfU US ew i@ S | cXoc FAv cFAL R Ag Acv ˻@F LLR Av R @Ac An@ ToF ATU c Acm -- q ATU @H ~oAS@TSm AFcH jce j@v AcrK oS AFdAO | ~oAS@ @Ac S qAɮ R j-v An@ Ac@r cp^ cA@ @ ~Ag^ cU v An@ US BdA | c oH @S @R ~T cAI s qeAB ~oAS@ @Ac Ac@r @cU Av j@ S ~ c @wB gAT@ a ; A@ا ceU ? ~oAS@ @Ac Qn A@ cU c ?

1912 U s Av ~gF, j@ rNf @a@Aa T @ AR @r ~cF ~a Z ~c@ q | j fWAS o j@v An@ j@vS @r AEOTR AcU WvS | U Tv Av @ػ s-@ cUaS, cXoc @Ac An@ @ػR j@q @ sBF : Av @wB U o j@v fW T AcF TA@ػS @Ac qAɮ ; j-@wB ~Acy @ ~TA@ ~S@ oS R AgcS @Ac@ s F@q @S S @S T j-@wB ~L@r Wv [ Frank Luther Mott, Poetry, A History of American Magazines; 5 Vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968), 5:244]. Av ~Acgɻc-Tk sc @wB @Ac cd U ~vUAxv@, ɻ̮ R mnqcS̮ -- A@ا c @Ac AaU, FAv TS- gK, j@cq TAUS, R AS^ w | FAv cFA˩ R fA۩ co @S AF j-AAmA, @S S AAS gU @q BSS s @Ac @wB a @cU q ~TA@ @Ac SS ; cqR ~S@ SS @im jq AcrU r cmS aA ~a, ss ~ɴvUv ~gc s ~L@r AcAW ~c cowm | j v Uq (1938) ST@ ~LBfcSf FAv, ~L@r BSF SS @Ac @U @f@T ewT @ AccH S | ~oAS@ ceU @Ac Qn jq ewT @v ~crF ~ ~S@ cAr @ F | ~T MgwF jq s ~oAS@ @Ac Qn jq ewT AL ~TSF@T , Tl R Tocf cXoc mha ASB m^ wH @S | o A@ ~oAS@ @Ac BSF ? ~oAS@ @Ac AAF@ A BSF AAS s Uq @S US @ ? TS Z c s jc Uq @H cXoc cFAw R AAF@ qTB ~S@gc QAwm |




~T @AcgcS-j ~c f ~qݨc R fS TZBf ɰS ~oAS@ ceU @Ac e@US cXoc-AScɻAO BfcSS^ @AcU ~^gA AS s TU Ac@ػ AccH ~a | @Ac sc @Ac caq @ cXoc R-e@US A OAaUS, Aco ɰ@X cvq RJ eAr ~SF r@R AB SAS | BfcSS^ BSF rKTK cɳ ~\ j@v Bw | fW S ca @v sc j-e@US @r AL sZS cXoc j@@gc cɻ, BfcSS^@ "J swF mS AA" @ cq J "̮co R Acc@" p | AsAS AaUS AAr @Ac oST ~oAS@ ~SFT, q of^S R s BfcSS^ @Ac ~AgScL o SAS @ gU wU ~oAS@ ceU @Ac BSfA ~T o c S | ~AT "BSfA" @v T@UfS TUOSɩALL@ ~˻ cFc @Aa, @S U c Tc ~˻ S | ~T BAS, cXoc A\UAZ OS cvq ~T sMcS ~ SSmS -- jTSA@ J pArfU ~S@ w\-SF -- cXoc c j@v AcrK oH AFɰr mc, T˻S R pbgc S @S | ~SF s@S UZ@ T TAxv@ AaUS cv, Ar\ BSF Ar\ TcR Qɩ AaU J, A@ا joH ~oF@f T^cF A cXoc c AF ~wT A@aq ~^B @ c S | cXoc c Amgc Acrɮ @S s @S@T Acɰ R ~cm ~AgUK @ Tl AF B^ S ; TB AcS A @ AFpA ɮ AcU S UR ToFT TBAcS Wv c Wva jTS TfTe Sf R Sɩ aUTSAK | AF mTkUF wAS ~TSF TSAc@ FT U | pAcf c TB @̮oS pBS@T ~crF@ r Sq @ZS @ZS pBS j@Tn ~^R | c BS c AHT r sA Riq, cXoc cUcS, AF A Bw AcS j k̩T UQF S UR TSBwA@ AcS @ rA Ac AF QT fAQة | rfAU, ^ R l@K TS sA ~oAS@ TB ~Ag jce @TF AO^rfU ~gFm, Ac@Ar, c@T SfިdK, AF cɰ A XgcS cXoc c c TS @SAS | ~T @AcgcS-j Ai@ j-@U AAS cUSAS, A@ا cXoc AcdXo TBcɰf ~AgswU Ai@ A@ AaU J j-UZ @ BS s | ~c^ gc Rc AAS SAS ~crF, @S S J AcިU R Acm@ AF@Tq s˻ Bcc | S AUR, ~Agswha S R AccH cXoc@ j@v AcrK oH ~AS ~r AS Z s | cXoc c ɩA TB cUS l@ aUTSAK cAr A@a gc SAS | cXoc ASAc@ ~O pb, ASɮ ~O Am, TAxv@ A@ا BAvU AFco@ sJ TBAcAo R USf ASFɮ gc ASB KT AU S, BSFq ce ~B ~T @dH | TBAcS@ cXoc c sA @A cFA skcXo Aha swU S gc @S, U TSq c J TBco ~SF US ~S@ cAr ~w R AH AaU | TB @A cFA OS A c @T@ U S, Bv S, wT S, ce j@ Acm@, ~cOS-ASA Tcf cmc, j@ ~c@-@ a^T Tw s @S @S ~er, A@, ^ TBrmf ~U U QT UR TB ST@ jq -~^cp Acv TArS H Anݩ Tm F WvS c AS ; BSR Sq | TBcF jq wgf̩ F ~Soc@ cXoc c@ q TBcU OTkU@ TkU A ~Aggk @ c AaU S | cR Pos o, gcr jce ~S@خTq s s^H AS TBcɰf oTUF ~c@F J@ S a :

@AcgcS ^F ~ɦ ~T@ S ~S@ @ػ s ~T TS AS:ɦ @, F @ ~S@ ASyU ~rA^, TZ j@Av @بmɰ AS sq @S-@S n | @ش @ش ~S IA-gA Zc AS s S-BSUR ~T AAcF OU s ; @S APKf ~T@ j@ Wxv o ArQ S @S l@AU@ AcK s ~T j@Jv l Sq | ~AT q S q cɩ aJR s ~m H c, q ~oɻU@ sZS @\S ZU @ -- c sS ~Jv, w, ~F^ cAr ASAEO | sS Bv wa Ti @S ~UɰfS f ; @S ~cF˻ Acr¯ TɰUf -- jTAS @ cUS ~S@ ; c TF ToS jce c r Bcc AS J PA |

~T @AcgcS, p. 31

jq Tv@ cXoc ZS @Ac R AF j@ sɻw @U Ac ; jT @q "ecA@ة Tha^" j@oS ~rcɰf AF cFAo T Acmp | "c^Ψ vU oU ~AScsgc" cXoc ~SF UZ@ ; "WvU j@ j@ Acha -- T^ R Tp, ~ @ZS c bgc, ~@mTl" ; @sw r Ai J@ ABwr @ U : "~AS s jZS cJO ~aS @f TH A S ?"

jgcq J AcdXo rn knɩ ; s AaS SfO, qAT, ~@pک R AAF@ DKɻ cq AcFTS | j-sɻ @ش @ش J@ cf^AcAo Ac J @A @p@s | A@ا j A@a R cXoc pArfU @ZS gJv AS ; J ~oAS@ AFco R eAr @U F ~AcOAU AaU | ceU AF ~oAS@ة c cXoc jq AAF@ ~cmS ToF s j@v Acc ~a, j@v BSfA ~a (@UOU mvAB TUO@ rNv sgc cFc @S) ~B@ AS ~^ ~T cI @ | ~ @A˩ "@ATvTxv" @ sA Ri, U cU cXoc T @ATv UZ@ ceU AF j@ cf^S@ cɰ AU ~ AXfAv ~a cU TS S | AF jq @ATvTxv BSF cXoc c BfcS A@ ATH gwA^ AaU ~T @AcgcS cqAv rK TA @Ac @AS @SF T^f c Ae-j "esBS" ~erAv ަUR cI s |

cXoc ~T sMcS rfK@ cq @ ~T BAS s b@ AcrAcFU ~AcmHf @pf an R LLR, @U@ɩ ~oFS j@v @B Bv J H^ | qxvAg qxvAg A sAhaUS, A@ا ASw@ةɻ er : b@ AcrAcFU @ r @ ~ɮ sc@ qeAB AF ަ c ! qxvAg cXoc@ sZS ABwr @ "A@ @S" jce cXoc sZS cUS "UZUAZ", ZS @ةɻ AAn AaU ~Ag^ : " TS c@ ?" jqgc AS AS O AAS AS @UB @B S, A@ا AF̰f cf^SH WK TpF SS @ةpQ J@ ASBި iS Jݩɦ @U cXoc ASBq q O@A a S | (~B@ @ BAS S, @U c@A @UBU ~oF@ ~S R ~A˻@ wA s AccH jTSA@ BfcSS^ T ~fc ASBSmgc @AcR @r @ waS J ArQ-fQ-ArQ@ة (TA@ cTf, @A@ 1355) ST j@Av wF, @ cI s AS @UB Rq O@A @ S-@ cXoc BSF TS AaU |) cXoc ~˻@ @SASq ~crF sAS -- TݨS @Ac J@ a-T j@v qSm Bv oA S j@c (T^f), jce @q TkU cXoc Acr gTH knɩ | 1956 U cXoc sɰcި AcrAcFU USTkU@ AFAcgw oS Ac AL wH @S | AL q cXoc g̩cK jq T joS j@v Acgw ASB wc sw S | Sr , ~dH@بT @, ~AT c, TSc^ c^FoF, ScSf c S, Hc^ r, rFTU woF -- jJ cq cXoc w @pA an-anf | jq T cXoc c q-~TA@ SS AcrAcFU R empA@ AS gTH, ArQ@ة R cp ~T^H Ug @S |

cXoc c AcdXo qKɻ@ɩ aXcrf gU@ ~ɮU rn d j-T @q | cXoc c s Acr S s S, BSF O, ok, cTr OS J aAv ~cS T S @ J@ ްFw coF @S | RA@ ~TpcB R sw^-wɤf J AcdXo AS AS @بl v @ jq cU s Acr W W ~ cf^S AcdXo cp A Bw ~AgSc ^ XgcS @aS cXoc c | sɰcި O@A cXoc@ @S qm A , eAQ AccH T^f UZ q | T^f ZS qAS ݨASgAAv ަUZ @aS jce J Acgwf oS v SB cXoc c@ j@v ATmv ަS ~T^H BASaS BS ~F^ ZAr | sɰcި AcrAcFU v AnH S AcKv d @q BSS jce J AnTq cXoc c qAS ~T^H wH @S | cA@a Ai@i@ c cXoc sZS ASTT aAv Zm S, @ةpQ aAv A AB US S | ~L뮯S Q˻ cXoc c ްFw @S | aAv S-T a cXoc@ "AcɦSq" AaU On^@f UQF jce U | qAS j (1963) ArQ@ة @ sR (NATevS ~T AcAr @U@ɩ j@ gTAU ~OSA @a SAa, qAS ݨASgAAv oS UqcA s cf^OScUf ~a, cXoc cq )| @U@ɩ A O@AfS cXoc q J ~w UZUAZ BfcS FcS @S | Ag @R J TS gC AwAaU Zc | A@aAS , 1965 U, AS r@ mpAAcBA۩ J ~c gUcɮ -r-q ɮAcf ~FAgAS @AcgcS a A s mf Ag c F U S@ةU cA | @Ac ~crF c^ @ S ~wq, 1961-, @wB JAOr ca kH c (1935-1961)| S@ةU cA j AST S Tg̩-OOɻ ; jce j@ j@ AUZ OUS @cFSvF, Tg @, mpA | c^Ψc^c ~ɮsR S@ةU cAR ~cF, A@ا S@ةU @Sgcq ~ @AcgcS Ri S | @Ac An@ Sq, @AcgcS Sq, A@ا cXoc wF j@v ~oH l@K R AHA J rKc UZ Aw ~T @p co @A | cXoc AF R Ar\co OTl@K J j-sɻ @B cF | J @Ac cf^S (1966), mf R AHf (1966), ~Sɲf ~S R T ˻ (1970), mwAc R ~SFSF @Ac (1971) R Tg @ (1974) j T@ rF | j-T@ WvS cXoc c J ~kH UZ AUZ s SAS | cXoc c @Ac R @AcgcS kH qAɮ s AUZ s US S BSF :Zco ~T @ scq |

FAv TS- Av(1912) R cXoc @Ac (1935) An@ sn d A@ا j@qgc | OJ U @cUq @Ac AS @wB c @ AXo^ SS j@ ~ ~AAO, ~vUAxv@ q q @Ac | j@BS Sf, ~SFBS ިdK | BSq ~oAS@ة QUcS@f, BS Fwq ~-AAS@ | sZS d @S @wB, BS @ش-q ZS ZFA c A SAS | c ~oAS@ @Ac AUZUR, @wB c @ ~oAS@ @Ac BSF ewT c ~oAS@ @Ac AUg BSF cXoc T fc R j@vS @S Uq AU AS TS@ | A@ec Uq @AaUS AAS -- Acr, s cq, ~FAr TpF s qAɮ ~S@ BSR UZSAS | v qTU f j@ Ql@ UAaUS @ca ~w | f Acrɮ @S ~oAS@ @Ac ~^US TS R ~ j@BS Sf s gkAT@ AaU @ wMH @ Z jB ɴ T ިdK @Ac-@Tf@q c @ U a | f- @ gcS @ @ jBSF s jr Sf ިdK T BfcS cQn TS mofS gw @UR Sf A jZS@ ިdK s @S rXo Sq ~T ~Agک @q BAS |

"ިU TFwABS R ecɰn @Ac ST AAS BF s Acr ~Sc̩ TA AZ, Acf gU @Ac AS j@ZS ^ @wB @ qha @q Av- B^", ~LBfcSf AUZaS TS [Harriet Monroe, A Poet's Life: Seventy Years in a Changing World; (New York; Macmillan, 1938) p. 256] c @Ac rAr l@p wF ac FSR AaU J | cXoc @AcR j cFAnT S -- @Ac cXoc@ s@T ~S@A@a j@ AUZ , TS@ R@T @S ITU AS | jv ~crF @cU ITU r S (ITU AaUq -- ɰ@f @ d @, c^-ASc^ aɦR w^ Amf@, SAvr, cq AcS -- ASB jce ~SF -- cq AAS j@@gc @S ; AaU @wB jce aZS ݮ BwS AEO^ |
TS Z c s ~T jTS j@v T @ cUAa -- ~crF T s Zc cUa -R S -- sZS cf^S A ~oAS@ ceU @cF- re S @ Acrg̩f @Ac AcS R c^ @ ), @Ac cvq rAr ~oAS@ wF AɰSR AaU cXoc Bv -- s AAS j@@, ~ب^gc, ~oH AgcU ^ @S | ~˻e@v AvR AaU ; A@ا TS-@ cXoc T AEO^ ~ wJv ݮ ZO @, UZUAZ A BfAc@ AScɻ @, AFAn@ c @ AS | Av sJ @B @aS, cUcUF, J @شq AF mhac@ AaUS S ; cq TqS ASq AFc @S |

Av Tv AaU, "Tl @Ac BSF Tl i@ @" (qvTFS) -- jce Av UQF AaU oS ecSrfU j@ i@wɤf XgcS | A@ا @cU SS @Ac @r ^먽 @ S, TS T@U AA UZ@ l@p UZ aS BSFR TS lf AaUS | ~ɻl Av@ @cU ~oAS@ @Ac TZn @ U J UQF AaU S | cXocR cfH UZ aaS, A@ا J UQF AaU ~oAS@ @Ac (~ɻl o AcrK oS c T @Ac S AaS s AcrK@T j@v co R LL ~a -R) ; jce @Ac cɻ˻ q AaU |

sTS d, TAS jZS, Av pK@ة BSF jAw ~S ~S@q | AcAg^ cFA ~SS ASg @q Av A | jv ~crF ~TA@ qA TvR SS S | mU-@UB-AcrAcFU cvq, ~TA@ ArQ-empA @U FT pKH @ S, ~a AcAg^ cFA ~cS ; s AcAU@ kOSU @q cFAnTfSgc F | @ gkAT@ j @Svq Sq cUUq OU | jr @U c c AcrAcFU AcAg^ cFA ~SS ASgrfU -- @ @ s ~, cU s Ac, A AcrAcFU k @ب@, j@v Acgw aT cFAScɻR ~c | Av cTS ɰ@ s@ cUaS "qgv AUSA" [Joseph Parisi, "The Care and Funding of Pegasus", The Little Magazine in America: A Modern Documentary History; ed. Elliott Anderson and Mary Kinzie (Yonkers, N.Y.: Pushcart Press, 1978), p.218], @wBAv j@U o Av@ @ F q cFAw ~SSq | Av jTSA@ wɦ A@R sJ AUZaS, JR ArAT@ aS | AcS ArAT@ @ɴ@ A@a AUZ AS | j-AS TS cr wcR AaU -- j@ Bw AUZaS s ~T s @Ac s Sf Aq jce A@ @ ~T @Ac @wB s j@cq cFAnT ~S@ \UZ @ gU sS Z ~c@ q |

Av fW BfcS ɰ@ R swf ɰ@ Ac jaS ~S@q sJ @ش @ش UZ@ Ac jce ~^ j@BS @Ac Ac -- sTS @U rA -- \UZswF | 1912- ~vc T eZF (@Ac- T eZFR c ~vc T, 1935 U ; ASq cXoc c T @SF TfSQf- B^ ) c c jB ɴ (T eZFq sJ "v qU--~FTA@S" @AcAv a R Ac@ػ U) qeUF @ AOAi AUZ BSS s q @ AAS UZBZ ew @ A cS | j@q ca vc Tɮ @ AAS Av "Acr AASAo" ASs S | ɴ ~AcUc qv R cf^S UZ ew @ iS | T ca (1912) pf eZFq qv @@Av AUA@ c cf^S wfɵAU aAv @Ac | 1913 U cf^S ScU ިy U, ~SA^ TS UZS :

It seemed too good to be true that our little magazine had officially `discovered'--at least in English--this Asian poet whose name was now resounding throughout the world.

A Poet's Life, p.332

Av sZS AUg @U, ɴ l A UUS jce BA۩ wUS ~SF j@Av AF@wB -- AUvU AAgF -- | c, sTS TS AUZ waS J ~LBfcSf, ɴ Av @Ac iS c^ @SAS ; @Ac cqR ~SF UZBZ A waS ASAT (sTS Av @Ar @S UZ AcK J ~AgT c AAn -- @ZS c @S cq AAgF)|

d A@@ ~ɻgc R ~SFSF e@v j@v A@S jU FAv TS AcrgTH cA S | qeUF Aw ɴ Z @ (1923) J AcrsvS kOS | TS gTH gc AvR -- @wBAv Ri AF@ ~˻ ~^BɻA@ | H Ac \UZ @ s J OfS gTH Av AcrK OfS eZF (jAU 1935) @Ar s ToF o oްf OfS @Ac S, RZS@ T@UfS SS R fTS @AcR Aީ c sw Ug @S | FAv ~SAmA Av OAn A@av AcS ~ -- @ @ T A@a@U BSF j AFTS ASwAT UQFswF Ri | RA@ d qS@ cS T v-~Fv@ FAv T sS | Av @U qA ~T ɰ@ ɰ@ cU AZ | FAv T ASɮ ASQة -- s ~S@خT dH @Ac AcA @ @ -- ~ Z s S | sJ ɰ@ Ac cf ~Acgk aS, @S S @S j@v T AaU, Qɩ AaU, jce AUS J A Av ~UQHf @AS | TS sJ Av ɰ@ aS, J ToF @@BS ST @ A -- TvS scU, BB AUS, @U rA, SA Fw, AU qS R s FAA | cU cUF, j ToF @U rA cO ZFATS | rA ɰ@ S caq sZS Av j jAUv WKH @S s "Av ~B ~ @cUTn j@Av AUvU TFwABS S, j@Av AS" | @Ac R @H rA @wBAv@ bU B Fwf S | Av B c UZ@BSF ^먽 @ cA s ~cmS AcrAcFU cq jce wJ cfH s UZ ~ : jq AaU J T | ~T oH, kOS@UfS Av A S, cXoc @Ac An@ c jT@ Av X gAc AaU cAr (TfSQf @Ac s ASAv AScɻAO e@US @r @S, AXf R pf Z OZ cUUR ~T OZ ަc) | ޡr r@ @U rA-A Av j@v SSL AaU | jT Av @Ar S ~S, BS cATFS, AcSS Bɮ, U TFS, RU Amvg^ T @Ac | @U rA ɰS@U ~S@oS Ac@ػ BSAݩ | j@c AAS qAUT @Uɻ qAUTɮ@, @U Fcw @ػ j@v c^ UZ AL S ; Fcw AaUS rA A @Ac jce J oH AaU, qAUTR ~S@kUq AUZcS | Fcw AcK qAUT T AaU j@cq Acf jce UZAv sZS Av cU, Fcw jq AQ S s rA AAS fWAS @ػ Aa^ @S | @Sɦ jq@SR AaUS rA c^Ψ, A@ا J ~LBfcSf Ac TUOS Av c c -@ػ O@ s | @Sɦ jq@S ~crF Av AcdXo TTU @ Fw SS, @H AAgF@ qha@pgc cq ~S@ XopA Ac@p @AaUS | Av c XopA Ai@gc a AB U, @Sɦ jq@S ~ TTU @SAS | AF qA jc ~crF SS WvS S | @UrA IJA@ wH lf AaUS, j@ Ql@ J Av ɰS qAɮ cU Aw, AAS cUS : "~AT @ZS @ZS jTS @Ac AcrKgc Bw AAa, s @U AcZFɩ -- sTS R R vTAUSS ; @ZS ~c aAa ~S@ UZ Tc T, ~ɻl Avq s T @Ar -- @ @ Qn vq T R rK UZ |" jA@ @ cXoc ~AgکR Zc Ag^ S | @AcgcSq cXoc AUZaS s AAS jTS @ @ UZR aaS, s@ gUcr J Zc cST TS AaU sTS rO^ @, T@بU gOs A@ec aXST Am @, A@ا UZUAZ ~ @ZS s Z TUAS |

sTS ~w \UZ @Aa, Av TkU rF AaU gU @Ac aS (sTS TS m @q AUZaS, @S j@v AcrK @Ac LL, mU c ~^US AASAoL ~c ~SF @Sgc TZn Ri j UQF AaU S)| ~B@ AS cO gU @AcAv ew @ a R AaU ~T UQF, ~ A@a S : TS cUaS | AUZaS, "~T BS Oq S @Ac @S LL J l, @S oS @Ac c @Ac A J Qɩ, @S r AAS ~Aocɮf, @ AAS AcUe @S |" TS TpF R ɰ@f SfA jq ̩ ~cF @ | cf^S aɦR cXoc c cvq ~ ~S@ cCAU R g̩f @Ac TkU qeAB UZ @Ac c @Ac qeAB ~Scɰ Av a A AXo @AS | joS ̩ q T cvq, jZS Ug |

@S AcrK @cF^US AASAo AaU S cv, c j@v T, TA@, qTABmv P@r, cfH Av@ qTABBT TZnq TS @S | j @H j-@wB qTABmv dH @Ac nAT@ AmA (ɴ, AVxv, Av q AT, AU AUvU UZ c jZS)| AXfcK j@q eZF (TO 1913) qTABBT -v UZ -- s j@Av ~c ɴ ASB -- @Ar U ~S@ cfH jAcK AS:er S | A@ا Av eZFU OZ cAU wU jce j AccS UQ @U ~ sq @ j@ R@T FA@U TS S | aɦ @Ac AScOS R FZS @S @S AXo^ TS QHrfUR AO S, sTS AAS q. q. @ATe T @Ac @Ac a AB SAS | AUvU AAgF jBSFq Av@ QHrfU Q@cO Ac AOA @ | Av ~crFq AaU S, c d SS cowTF @H @wBAv s Ac@ػ @ب -- jce QHrfU BSF S | sTS @U Fcw "Ar@w" @AcAv sZS cU TO 1914-, QSrfU U An@ j AcdXo @vA @ | ~S@, AcrK cTWJK A@a UZ@, j-cUR TUOS @S s Av s c TAB@ ɮA@ة ~A@Al@ | QHrfU S, Av AaU ~oAS@q @wB, s cfH QHrfU d @q ASgU ~JO @ AaUS | 1915-U BS T Av j jAUv AcZFɩ @Ac "A Ug e ~ B ~U @" Avq c, QHrfU s TU TUOS @ (j@BS UZS @cFOOɻ A@gc FUAB H , p^ jq @Ac !) |

TS AAF@ TS wS cUerq cXocf -- ~ɻl AF TAB@ sw AAS ~Acrɮf S-UR wgf erf AaUS | @Ac wH c cBS@q AAS j@Tn AL TS @S S, ɰ@ Ac AAS AOAi AUZ ASB TT ~Sިgc BSS | jA@ AR cXoc J wgf ATU UQ @ T | cO c ATU co BS TS Ͱs, T ; AwH AcU R ~@بi l@F ; AF BSF ̰ R emT gUcɮ | j@H qTABmv sTS, TAS cT^f @AcR j Bw AaUS : 1936-U c cT AFeZF ; 1932 U ~FUS vv ~AA ɰ@ ɴS AUvO BSF AcrKeZF c @ sw S | jaɦ "ca r @Ac"- BSF TS ިmR cS @S | ~ SSoH ިmR cA Av Fw -- jce ZS ~TA@ AcQبNo BSf@^ r cUUS "v@ ݮ A @Ac@ @TArU @c Jݩɦ aɦ jc ~ A@ TS !"

BSfA ~Slf UR, AXf AcrsXo T Av Q Sfc @ c AaU S -- sXo AS Amvg^ j@ha @Ac aɦR ~ ASBS @Ac sXoAcK@ @Ac a : Bݮ A@UT, ~qB@ BScw R dv c@ -- ASBSq sXoQn T sS | @Ac cdS c@ Ai@S Sf O@ iU ̩ ~ "@ Tp" cU | cXoc AcdXo ~S@ ~Agsw AaU sXo R T@U AcK J ASɮA | AXf AcrsXo ~crFq j@ c WvS, A@ا ~T BfcS R qA j jTS @S c ɮA@ة Sq | j@v H Aq | Av AUZaS j@T cAnrBS @Ac sXo sS -- AXf AcrsXo @S cCAU @Ac@ A@ sXo s a ? J sXo gc c AaU ceU jce cXoc s -AcK ~^ AaUS S Zɰ @AcgcSq QF ~a :

il j@AS r a wU UU ~ ZA@ @ɩɻ; ~T Q@ jce q Ac cɻwwHF ; U@ @ jS s^ cn TS, @S k Sf-@بAi S cJroAS BUR aɴAS a | ... @S AST AwrAwr @a ZA@ ... sXo sZS WS, ~T TAB@ cp Ac UwU j@Av-Av @ TA@ ިdK | ~T ZUT @Uq aAv Wxv T ~ TTSK g @ S | ~T kcAAO WpAH vAT Bɩf Bfc S ; ~S@ ~a g sc, ToF ~a ArAQة aU, cq ަۨ, Ar\A@ | ... sATSf mvAR f˻mS ia | ZU o ~ɮ Z s, ceUgK @Ac AcK l@ | ... jTAS @ sXo o, o AaU rɰ jce @U ToF BAg, s w UAaU jq aUq TBF-Q kcިdK g̩cK ... of^ c^ΨTU - @@v Ac wU s n qeB R nf cCAU -- Bc OS@ ~TU co q T |

~T @AcgcS (p. 64-66)

sXo ~ ~S@ w\ cUaS cXoc -- J ~cU@S ~cF˻ ; AS p aAc T i ja sXo-T@UfS @U@ɩ | AUZaS A@gc jT PA @U @Ac SS SS i@ ; AcAn wU @AcgcS ިS, cAS @ cq R An@ ; AcAr AF ceU PA U SS oS j@v @ػ | "sS A@Al haU mɰ Aha ~ATR, ~T anBfcS بc q T"-- AUZaS cXoc | UQ @c sXo T˻S-~T˻S ~c^ @ػ (FArBT AcAo @ UZ cXoc c^ TSc^ c^FoF-A mS wpsXo : ޡr ca cq ~a), cXoc scQH dL j fQH, As@ة, cmcoTf mgAc@L | ~w @ Ai@ @ @S Tɰr fAQة S R Uq J Q sXo cAcc ~^U ~SFoS j@v F, ~SFoS j@v cmc ~SocS c AaU | "sXo Z" "sXo cSr" -- jqc gcU ToF S Aw, TScBA eWɩ ~SF @S c̩ A̮ PA @ A@S -q Zc R cIc O @AaUS AAS | @pA@ ~AnT @ SSgc empA C ~cfH TSK -- cq ~T cA S ; ~@TF UR, sXo Ag A @pA Acha Wv, ~T, jce ݩ-c ASB ~B^q empA SS @S cp, Sc @S TSAOn S c Ri | cXoc UZ sJ sL @ aS, ~T jq gKF J @a Zc cwS i@c S |

~oAS@ @Ac ~^US A@ec AcrK oS A c AASAoL cXoc T TS UQF AaU S cv, c Av ˻@ة A@ rK s^ -q S ? A@ا ~w sTS cUAa, Av @cU TS j@ @B S -- j ~ɮU cBS ATAU FT R ɮ | TS TpF ɰ@ ɰ@ cU c kn j OAnR cU AcAg^T | FAv TS@ gcf@U Zc c Av Aɩ Acq TS Zc ; @Ac, AFOOɻ A@ec ~LBfcSf BSF S | A@ا cXoc ~T ɩ:mHf o ɰS @H S, J AcިU AcAOn AF@T BSF | @Ac R @AcgcS cXoc c ASBm pA : J An@ ɰS @cU j@v AL c TAB@ @T @AS, iAaU ceU AF ~oAS@ة j@BS Tl Ar\f ASAc, TU, T, ~ pBSɰFT XgcST ~ZFS |







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