cXoc c AOAi : @AS @SF dAT@

mpA kn ɰS : T^f c Ae







(cXoc c AOAi : @AS @SF dAT@ — mpA kn ɰS : T^f c Ae Ac@\ @ @Ar c | cqAv ~T mpA ~er @ Av Aha cɮ-j @Ar U )

~T mpA

[T Aha]


AXf Aha

1


cXoc c B^AaUS UUv mf OcS AS, UQfcf TZ AAAaUS ZSq | Ag, To jce ~LAcrɮ AaU J -ް, J Q@cO | ArAv s AcrK, B^T ~coA̩ TpF@ A Aq TH @AaU | cU@ c MJa MJa Z wU ZUoU S, AcOH @ j@ @\S Bw | Sr cq ަ, @Ac UZ, Sv@ @ | aUAv BS @Ac c | jaɦ A@aq OAS @ZS | BfcS haAha ~AgکR @a @Ac gK @ cU - Sf ɦ gC @ wT Uc ި cAU @wB ɩ ɩ ~ ~gF @ T AS^ Sf̮ OOɻ s^ |

c j s AaU qeAAB gK ~Sɮ ZU jce AF ~oH ~Sw | Ag, To R AcF jq nFmrq AAS AaUS cXoc c | ASB ~^ AUZS cU av cݮ @q An@ @r IJ@ AaU ; AF ~S̽ AaUS cU ~SF @Ac-UZ@ UZ ަS c T jce gU UwU g-i@ BS ~Sgc @S; ~ AcFBS mq l@ AaUS cU AЩF AaU mgAc@ Ac@rTn | A@r cݮ @q Acr®AF B ZU AwAaU J TS |

gɻwFcr AAS B^AaUS J T ~w | ~jc @\UU-j @Ar J T w\ BSf U U R AXf @cFw^ c^f c^S @q AAS ~rfU UZ@ Ac AOA OU jUS Ac@ػ @^ | Acr r@ T A@, b@ r, jTS m hOH T mS ZS@ QHrfU wɤf F U S | A@ا cAT, rlO^, cf^S ~oAS@ة R UwAaU s, wArfU cAXoBfcf @a cXoc c cɰAT iUS | @U@ɩ ZS @\UU-j @U |

j@ذU ~@بxi re jce ~@ U Ae Am - jq q Td vSS ToFq J BfcS jAw wa ASB o | sw^ wɤf ATF O ~c rASc AOAi- l@v @بl, @Svq J@ moTOF @ AS | @Ac An@ d c T T^ ATn AaUS J F O, J@q s뮲ɰ@ @@Ac- sn d | A@ا cXoc c BfcS ~AOq T S, gK TZoF, cfɰ R @TQfɰ gɩX - jq c dH-@f ~Acgc c T^ ATn TS AS SAS | AAS Aw Bv cJoUS gOs , AsAS cXoc A Ac SAaUS jq cU s rfs cXoc c ~A A cT^f aS | jA@ J a^ BU sc @Ac R Av@ cA w BSfA m STU sZS, c. c. TTɻ US | w\ qAɮ | @Uq BSS cc BSfA m aɦ gK@@ ~ cf@@ d J A^oF cBS @AaUS | AcG jce T S@ ~crF cq ~T cA ~ɮ ZAa | @TQf@@ @ZS ec Fw @SAS - cc@ AFq gUcɮS AAS | BSfA @a gK@ A, cfɰ@ A, cf@U ~r@ ATn@ A AAS @ AaUS | jq Hf, BU sc@ AAS gUcɮS | cc gUcɮ ~JOq ~T jJ ~S BS gUcAa | @ZS BST S gK@@ c cf@@ cc @S X^ AaU | ~ ~r@ ATn@ ~BR Ac F cUq TS , J ~T ~^ c^S ~F^ ~Jv | BSfA gc AsAS sZSq Aav@ ަۨS, jv@ب ASgU BAS, jJR @ZS @AcgcS G ASU gUSAS, TS TS ~T cq cq@ gUc wAa | cT rS T gC gK@@ ~c J SmvUAB@ ASg r S | ~T B^ ca (1940) cc J ްA@ @cFw^ @r @S, ~AT @r @UT J rK cq A@ ~UZ\U | ~T@ ZS AAS avcU q ~ɰ AA AAaUS | sAS jF@AT ިm S, ^cU ~^@ j@U Aw Sfc JAAaUS S@ةU cA T- Zv r BSU o | cc ZS ~S@ @U w | ~AT ASBR ~r@ ATn BPSA@ v@ mf@ @ A S | ~f gUcɮ - @ة AOAi, @ة , J @a Aw @, ~T ިn A J wgf m, @S ~cF @H J BSF ~T c@-gC @ (s AASR BSS S) - j c ASq J@ TS AZ | T^f c R il j@AS AAS j JAAaUS c AcrAcFU ~T Acgw c^ | j@ @Tf ~T b@ Zc AU ɦɩA cA j J@ Z @f gUq s UwAaU ! cA AS wUT, T@ AS qUT J AAS S S O s^ | ~AT a T@ AS c ^ j@U j@Av av @vɻ ~Aa, v J@ ASEOq @ AAaU | @ة mpA -- cc@ cɰ A j @ػU PA AS | ~BR cc@ @^ Zq ~T jJ s | ToFAc^ AASq @cS AO@U |

~T @a cO FBS@ ~TpcB-sw^ wɤf rn | jJ cc ɮA @S ecq AaU S, oH gq @ػ AaU ce | 1938-j @S J T q g gC ATF O AU US cI r | ASAZUg̩ wA UZ@ eW g cXoc c R cp j@Av c@F qeAAB ~Scɰ@ UqS @ ZUU ~TpcB - The age of Rabindranath is over - ~TpcB gKF | TkU i : of^S OS @ Xop "s sw cf^S@ pA @a, cAS ~wq ~An^ a |" ~c BU WU @U 1939-j @ATw cp AS | jZS ~T TS ~TpcB cf^S@ cXoc c-Acof @q cXoc c@ cf^Acof c @ T i@v ASAaU | O U AS, @H AcO O cc cf^S @aq ~UAO c^ ~Ac@p i Ai AAaUS | cf^S cXoc c@ A@ gc wH @AaUS THm AcFTS J AOAin (AOAin 16, Acrg̩f) jce cf^S TpF ~cFcA kc cc UZ c Aa r |



2



1961- sA cf^S cJO @S, U ~c J cq AcO OR s, ~T Ac@ j@ :m ToF A s S |

~T cݮ ZS j@بr - jT. j. A | cc AST^H ja Acr @ B^rcK cf^S R cp c BSF | A@a @A AST^H, A@a AcAg^ AcrAcFU @, ~ A@a ~SFSF em | j s AaU SF q@ػ AcrAcFU j@ Tmv ަS ~T^H | ~T cc@ o cUT, T-@R SR | @Bv B AaU S - sq @, ~A˻@ R eA@ SS TF ToS U T wUS cc | T- BfcS T Acrsnq pAcf AnT - -R Sf Tɰ ! j c cp^ T jce cc J gTH@ AcmA̩ AUZaS, ~AT o TS @ A@aq Ta-S- ~T ASBm s^H mpAv@بq cUc |

cc-T T ja, ~T cU BS J ~Q AS SAa, jq T il @ش Zc AU (~T @SASq sw^ ަ۩T S) sw^ @wB @ش cXoc c Tɩ @ ATF AU AB j@ Uc OS AUZaS | ccF, c. c. SA@ Acr ~T^HA o@ S @ FA cp cf^S AS@بAO @aS | AA-BFA ZS ~T ~ 202-j ~a - ~SS U @wB, q ~rUfS, cFAw ~nTH Aި, Pcc ATF g c^ ~T TS ~cm @TS U cHS gK ~T Sq | A@e@ةcFAcTkb ~T sZS gcAa ~T @f @Hf, ToFq r@بAS-wpAoSf U cXoc c-SS TR@ UA ަU T | jaɦ ~SF @S AcrKH q Tɩ@ gkAK @ s S | sw^ AcAn c wU, @A˩ cf^g BUTf AOAin KcKH @ UwUS, cBFA cTH ST ~vc jT. j r @ j@Av U@ ASB vFcU @بl cSF cq AU | ~T ~EOs ZUT, F R F A ~TBS @S ~w Sq, AS^ jce @بl "empATSm" cCAU s jgc Ovިv Z ~T BS AaU S | q TU ToFq pAcf R rXo-S-~AF-~ɰ-gUcɮ-c^Ψ G mpA c@ AS A jUS T-cc |

gc s S, sw^ Acc@S^ TZoF FA q cp rf Amϩ AaUS, A@ا j@c AAS TZ ZUUS S | ~nTH AcKɽ ~@ oH @U r j JUS r An@ ɰ@ wT WK jce jT. A. @ ofO^ @ | r-j cc TkU c^ ިSTA U jce ASB OS AcK cXoc c jv@بq cUUS s jq SAfW c^Av AAS Acr sc c ~wq ~U qA AR OA̩ jce ~@rcSf ASBm An@ a | UZAv gwF cf rT ToF "qeAAB R ceU, r R Acr, ZAЩ, kH R AcAo JOc @r Ug Wv |" ~BR q c^ BɿBUFTSgc Amϩ J : AS:ʩ cf^S w^ (cf^S R fOf) |

jA@ ofO^ cA ATAve @US | g@f Ag ROU, TkU c^Av qeAAB R ceU ަ U ZS, of @ cUUS, sw^ AcdXo TSAS TTU @ c, Tm ZO AAS cS @cS | cAnT j mc wpf U cc TTU @ AcK TSAm @US |

TTU sZS ɦBɦ OUa ZS j@AS J J 202-j ɩU iUS F^S c | J @a cc AcdXo q ew AwAaUS cXoc c @a c @H Hf, cTWJK ~O ASAT ~T cA ~S jTS j@ TTA@ @Ac- A@a rnQ F | F^S U@ ZAaUS ASA On^ aAc | cXoc-S@ AAS q @S F@U @ OSS, j J@ @f cIc ?

AAS j ~T ިSBfcS A wUS | S@O @ AUS TSAS TTU @ AXo^ | - ATFcɰf A@ Uq ? ATF TpF ~S~ASq , public memory is short | A@ا ~ɰU wU @ة ca R PA Se ST T@R S@ASOcAS Z c gc Za ? @wB ަ c^ @ ASB @B TS R | c Ai@ sc -- J ccF TTv jTSq AaU | cA cq J@ AW cAaUT, FS c r T-cc @a ~rTn, ~jc TTU ASyA ZSq wU | @f Bɰ AAS j@ ASTK U ASUS j@ ca o ~T e R IU @ j@ ~g @U a | TTU BSF ewpf c @wB BAU clc @ U |

J @ ~Q ~Q AF AaU | wn-Bɩ ATF A U@ ZA j@BS l TSK@ nبAq @ s, ~S ɦS s, A@ا TLL @ SR s S | ~SFgc ~FOA̩ TSK@ ASQ gAcKFl T ~ɮS c | r vSUR UW d@ ASO ST S | -BAS, c BAS, cq BAS -c ~T TS q : ASU mpA ~S T wT | BU ~AT ~BR o q | ~T cc@ s ~SF ~nTH @a, ~@F ~TS @a @rF, Zc @wB ɩ ATF AU AB, ~AT @ZS QT @ c S |

j WvS R J R ASTT ~AcO AaU ~ j@c - 1963- -~AT ZS Acr |

ceU-qeAAB ~R cq j@Av kH SS iFnT OU @ moɻ @ d @ TA@ػS r @ j@Ao@c AST^H R cFv F AS ~S@q | aɦ l@UfS @^f ArQT^f TݨS @cf jce sɰcި v AnH S @U@ɩ AcrAcFU cW-cW ~oF@ jA cXoc c@q @S sɰcި AcrAcFU PA @B @ ASUS jce AAv Acgw oS ~S U Jq Tr @ - vR wn @H AaU | S U AcS TqS a-Tɮ aAv R AS BU WU @ cXoc c aAv ST @ jce @^ J@ ްFw @ coF @ @Sq ~˻ R s S |

1963 U AAS AST^H AaUS qAS AcrAcFU @, sZS ~AT Aa ZS, A@ا ~AT BST S AAS ~ɮaS sQH S cc jq ecɰ AAaUS ~T@ | ~: v ~UOS @, J ~STA ASq qAS @ةpQ@ AiAaUS J mf@pAn | gɻwFcr, jF@AT@ @ɴA^U ATAve-j v-ABmv @S ccFq wHA^@ gv JU S | c q Tq AcrAcFU BSfA T c cAaU |

1963- ~wmvT cc ~TA@ j MJac q o jc @ BS AaUT ~AT | SF q@ػ j@ vU c T-cc @a j@v j@v @ c WvS S ~AT @J gAAaUT | sɰcި jce Acgw s cc HAo@ AaU @ BST cUq J QةmS @ة wgf ~Sgc @Aa TT TT | USTkU@ AF ~Jv Ac ASq gC OMAO AaU |



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1963 @ 1965- T, cc, ZAS@v coFTkU@gcq TA@ػS r @ AwAaUS | ~A˻@ ASޫ R cc @U AUZS S | sɰcި ~oFS j@v mf Bw TfAO@ AZq ATAU wU | Tk @U@ɩ AR TS AaU S J | ca @ @ Ac. j. r @A, A@a v@ AS q TfOfS TS @AaUS | ~AT RZSq, AAR ~ɮ @ OUa |

cc-T sAS NATevS, qAS AaUS ~T Zq Z | T- @a Aw Zq, ASB ^W U | qAToF ~AT Ac @AaUT, Ac s^H-BAvU cI ~wq ~^:LL AaUT, j@ @AiS T ~T BfcS | Rq T T-cc@ @a cJO AwAaUT |

sɰcި aca ~AT cc ~S@ an j@BS AaUT | cA ~T qeAAB UZ eroS @ AS, A@ا cFAwgc ަS ToF BSAS | fQ j wa, jc A A c^ @ -j oS T^cFq s AaU | AA @ Aw T cc@ ɮA cFAw Ac AaUT | AcK ASoɻH @ @ cq Bwɦ @ R - c-q @aS ~T BSF | cc qAS @@UfSq AA mc AUZ BT AUT -Av. j. jAUv R g̩f AO^ gc - AcS TF T wU | j @ - cc sZSq @بS S @S -TS ~T@ ަrS sF @aS | ~T@ UZ J AOAin j@v Tm ~er B ~a qc ~UOS (AF cU MS:MAS@ة j ~T AA-p @T AOAiq ~AT jq e@US AAa) | ~T cc @ػ j@v ~SF c d AaU jq T @ | ˻ an-Tmv @ػ |

Z Z qAS j@ Tmv @v wU | ~T AB @ Z cc-T wUS c@UfS, SF q@ػ - cc ަcS c@UfS @UB, sZS ~aS ̦A@ R Twɻv TrɻU, ~TA^ ~oF@ sJ j@ذ sɰcި ~T Acgw AAaUS | jJ Ag̮q qg a VFv AaU ~T ~S@q SF q@ػ Ai@S |

ZS ~AT HH O @Aa Ar ~ɮ ~wq A-jqO-A- @ASAg rK @ | AS ~T @ɮ A@FTxv rK | cc-T OU Aw TS Z ~crFq, c T cU AwaS TT Ai@ ~ɮcS | gU gU @ASAg rK @AaUT ~T aU cS (~AScɻH) B^c j@ ~w, jce T TS S TS AASR j Amϩ AaUS q Tq | ~ ~T aU AAT TS Z AAS j MJac ASq ~Acgk US, T j@ ~w |

j ~T, ~ ~AT (c) j@v cA j@خ A@aAS AaUT | F@ ASB @B cFm, ~ ~AT - ArUS Sl ~SAg ~AT - FBɩ j@Av Ar R e AS kH Acsm | ԮT d cc-T jUS - T cc ަcS @U AcrAcFU, ~w @@v AS ~T @a | T jq SA B Uw wUS -- ~AT g Ov cS@ BU Ac mS @qAS s^ | aU @ZS ASv WT S, WA-WA @J - T-@ jqc AcS A cAI ~AT OU wUT A - ~ ~T ~SAmA sw AS SA@ T cr @ U TAZ cS BU mS @US j@ T Uc @U OU AgAB (~AT @U ASWɻl ~ɩ OJOTAO @̩T i Uwc g) | o cɩU TZ A SA@ AAcF S@ @ Uc WT UwU ! AF, Acr j@U aU TSK @ Aw ~AT rf-TS j@c om AwAaUT, T-cc j @v AS B AS:rɮ AS AAaUS ~T@ |

cc-T r A jAaUS 1965 U | A j T AXo^ ASUS 202 a S@ةU sc - AAS ZS ɩ- aS ASBm cA @aS | T- jq ~c@ c @ @fA cc @ةv To v AOAin cc @r a ( T ASEOq TFAB@ BSS), LLR 202 a s s J ~F @ AaU vR wS @SAS | TT r cAUw @ ^ Uq rU-@ ~o-TmU S@ةU j Ac^ co @AaUS AAS | mS AcS o S, cc@ TAS AS AaU J Uq-mvqU ~TU AcS | BSTwT Sq, ~ɦ Sq, sɰcި ananf Sq, ަS Sq, Sq ~UA@ة @S-rAg TAU-~oFAK ɮAcf jFAgSF HOU - jq T AAS wgf AS:ʩ TZTAZ US |



4


1966 @ 1974 - ~v ca Tn cc @v AaUS J ASBm cA | jq ~v ca ~AT cc j T-cc @a @Aa | ~T ~TA@ @ A ~A 1966- Ac, AA rK s^ ~TA@ wU 66- T, cc A ~ɮ | @Sި T j@v ~OS Acr, r ~JO cq, ~q. ~q. Av- j@^ @Fɲ, cFAw BfcS cS-s^H sI-sI ca AS-Oc ~AT av AwAa T-cc @a TA ASrɮ AS, wfyT aAv @AvAa S@ةU cA - cAq ASB AaU ~T | cc T ~ATR Sw gUcA; @Fɲ cXo, ASm BfcS ~gFm AAS @SAS | ~AT chO AS sZS ~ɮT ccR AS:ʩ @v s | ~T aU A T-cc BSq ~A-~ɮ | Ar UATU Z OU ~w cc A@ا cA a SA B بvcU ZU O @aS | nT nT ~T @Uq S@ةU cA qgA ~ mq gw @ d @AaUT |

qAToF -ca @v wa, AA-BFA Acr @ A ja | BFA ASBm ~SwTf-~SO AS SS @\ T ZS - cc BfcS R BfcS Zc cAr BA Sq ~, sTS AaU 202-j | q ASm T cc-T AaUS ASBS Tcݮf c^Ψ - AABAmv Ac. A. SwOMof, J wA@ mf fUf SwOMof jce J WAS c^Ψ vqAS OFvAB (A. A. OFvAB)- AsAS ZS @U@ɩ ~@rcSf Av AaUS | kH m˻fS q Os sMcS c^Ψ ~TB ~ ~S^ AaU | r An@ ɰ@ wT WK R ~S^cB An@- s-ɰ@ ^K WK R ZS J wgf ~^ʩ | wT jce ^K WK 202-j s S jaS, O ~S@ cAr jaS S@ةU cA | ~T AS gqcS F@q jJ ~Uɰ ~Uɰ cFAw @ػ cA AaUT | T ~Z T o @ d @ cc ~@Am@ Ac s^ ^K WK ~T Ac TZF AaUS | J @a ~T @pک ~fT | ~ɮS ~ ~S@q - A@ا 202-j T T-~T-AAS S - U cc UZ T @ aS ~S@ cAr, ASB @B ASAc aS ASAcW |

jq ToF 1970-j Ac R j@Av rfTf dHf j S@ةU cA SS H @AaU | cc-T ިncok@ @SF ~ɰ wH @AaUS | T ~gc kH @AaU | Ac R ^ c^Ψ @ػ w iAaU ~T cA | Ac A@a ~w @q ~AT cS@ AS S@ةU AaUT | AXf ^S ~wTS fQ AaU ZS, q AA @B rK @ BSF q. AB. A- mUAr AS s AaUT sɰcި AcrAcFU USTkU@ AF Acgw | ~ɮU TSK ~crFq cc, sJ ASU sF R l aɦ ~T @B rK S @ZSq | Ac U cA, ~T @SF B^U TO Tq | cc @a @@Tɮ @B @ U gUq jAwAaU AA | rK s^ ~crF AST Ar@SF ASS@ (A^) AS @Sި A ZSq ި UZv rK @ qAS ~T ~oF@ v Scv Fmv @a iq kH AvrS | w\ ToF jZS sc S - TkU @ jq s, s @B d @AaUT Arިn@ j@U c @-@, @B s c coAcW Ar@SF@ @U AS rKs^ s rK @ UT, BSF kH @pAL ~T cc | AAS S @U j @B @ZS ~AT ^ @ ̩T S, AAmA Ac@ ~T TS ZS jq gC AwAaU | ~T R Acrɮ Z AAS ~T@ ~LAcrɮ AA AAaUS, ASB rA-, AvATSrS-@ATvTxv ~T ToF A̩ @AaUS | BɰcU S, J AS^ TSsw ~T @B A j@w @ |

~T Ac s ge@ c WvS Wv OUa @ @ c BS ZS ! cc s AFOOɻ ToFq T @aS AO@U, T-q AaUS e ccɻ | BAT-cA T- ~w, cc kH ɮfS R AcAc AaUS cF | rA^AS@ةS f^S ~So kcA\U BAT ASAaUS cv, j@c aɦ @ZS sSAS ZS; T PcGcWv-vAU BAT A@SAaUS, av j@ةU cAR @AaUS, A@ا cc @ZS @MkUcrR Z sSAS q BATcA | ~O SAB gKO^ c w ZU o JA j@Av c wa jce cJr J@ Z @S TAxv@ ~cw T-@ il cUAaUS, jZS cA @ BAT A@S A A | T q ~AcrɮF ~ rSTnq U ASUS - j s gk TZ TST ! lQHl BAT ZJB cFp US, jce R wUS ^ j@Av JO @i v | s BAS B v@ @ @i AaU - cc ArA Q @ v@ Bwɦ @ AAaUS | ~crF T @f @ cA @aS AcK ~ l OAw Z SAS | eA@ cF cc AaUS kH ɮfS R ~, T AaUS cTf @nf |

~T q O BfcSTZf T, cc BfcS TQfSf, 1972 U il j@AS OUlrA US | IUTU S@ةU cA, AkH e-Tk ~^@ c wU | cO wgf ~^@ ~ha^ @U cc@ | mf@ Ac^f ~cm rsFw Z @ J@ F @ب-@ب Za | j@q T AOA@l AcިU ZO @f @ OUcS q AO^ AASݩ Acom aS |

Ag c T-fA jZS w\@ | q ASAcO fAq Zl A U J@ J ASB BfcS A | j@Av @ب@ب@ cA iJq A jq Pc | j@AS Ac AS cA j Amϩ | @ب@بAv ~m v cIR @ش-q cIAS Ԧɲc Ac a | Ac jq ^m, ~ɩ vq @ BS AaU S | @ب@بAv TpF U sZS BS wU ZS c A wa | T TAv csL c T cF @aS ToF | TSK P P @AaU S@ةU cA T - ɽ AcoS AUS cq@ jFAxv-Ac qSB@rS AS | s @ب@بAv@ ɮA rK @a بU @ɮ OɳAv qSB@rS, cA@ ɩAv @ ASUq OUc | rAv qSB@rS j@AS T W B ToF rfA@ rA US | ZS rS wU AcU UR jFAxvAc qSB@rS AAn TkU Sgɻ AmvT ~OU | ~crFq ɽ jq cS @ WHQR cUSAS |

a ~AT k c j c S ~Am q, ~T@ cc ZU @ A@aq BSSAS | 25|4|72 AZ ~T@ ~SFSF Zc ToF \@gc AUZUS, "... ɰ TpF ~T cAXo @U@ q@rS AS U - T- R fc AAn AaU, ~c AOA@l OUa jZS, ɽ cUaS j@v A | - jA@ wTAHR @ɩ | ~T esnR ZJA ZJA OUa |" 10|5|72-j ~c AUZUS, "... T- T AAn @خ ~F^ AcU, A@ا @-@ Pcl @ZS s, ~oAS@ AOA@l @Uq ~wFUg @S |" ~T@ AO^T Z ASB@R A@ jq cUq co AAhaUS AAS ?

~AT j A@a ToFq @U@ɩ MJa T- ~cm Z g AaUT Ai@q, A@ا cc rfA@-TSA@-~A˻@ Acs A@ A@ @Uq TS r @AaUT |

~AT sc -q - ZS T AS Tɮ U rsFw, AABRA OUa - il j@ ި cc e US | ~AT mS b@AaUT --AS ~T aU B B B o A cUa, T -T -ArA j, ɰ wa | ~AT @ST rA BA T @ cA av j cc W b@ AZ cq r\ o AAS JA ~aS, ~m-~m UZ vAcU A@ jwc O @aS - A@ا TZ-OZ @S gK Sq | ~AT @a Aw cc@ oq AAS ~T S A bU ަUS | ~T OFJOTAO ZS ~SF W @ T SɮAvR M ja, ~ T- ~ɩmR S Aha | ~T OZ TS ZS pAcf gC ަa | ~AT ~ Sɮ TAv cc@ ooA @ sZS J AcaS rAha ~T OZ BU ZS ~es - AAS ~T a OU shaS jq g ~T@ wU @ AAhaU | A@ا -sn J@ A AaUT | OZ-TZ BU A cc-cc @ @ AAS gKfS OZ ZUUS, ~m ~m mgAc@ US | AcA@ ɽ @TZFcc@ Zc R U AAS j cUUS - AcU jFTSAr - jv ~S RASe | Awv @TS, ̦ Tfv jce ~SFSF q-AvS c c^ |



5


jq @@AS ~w T cUAaUS - ~AT @ZS TpF @ gAc S (~O T հc TpF aJ A jaS) ~O cc A@ا ~Tq ~ A@a@U cJOc ~@ @r @aS cc | @S BAS J TpFg AaU | AFq, T rsF Sc ~ TpF-OS AW AaU J@, AS e S WvS s A@ RASe AAS BSS | ~O T ~w ~cm BSF ~ @ jce J AOA@l OUS BSF ASɩ ~ɻBS AO^ mv @ c SAS rK AS s^ | Awv ZRR @T SAS, sAR q-AvS ZR c^ @AaUS |

T- ~Z BU T ~˻cF AhaU, q v@ s cc UZ Aq BS @ AaUS vq ~EOs | cF BT v@ ~T Ac @ZSq AaU S - sn ~ n cF @q e OUa AOAS - T-~T @r@q cF gkAT@ US @aS | T ~LBfcSf BfcS BUaAc j@Av c@F ~S@@q Acg^ @a, v ~AT jZS Ay @ A Oq | T AUZaS, ~T cc OU sc "cF w ɩ A Z wU c@بUF 790 v@ ~a |" jq T^cFAv ~S@ i@q o ASaS ~T cc ~m T-@ AS:m ~cm Z AwAaUS; jq TT ɮA ~SswR Aa | jq ~Ssw j@v R BdA TS @Aa | AA@ @Hq |

T @ ~crFq jq s fW AOA@l ZO Bwɦ @ Ac AS:m s jTS WvS AcU S - ~jc cF w rkSF @v ~A mgAc@ | AXfݩ, ~T cc BSS S s TpF j J@ jTS ~T ~@ml AaAS Sc | A@ا ~ɮU @ S | Age cF j@Av jF@ɴxv ɩ v@ @ c ɩr v@, v ~T Ac ~c^ | AUZaS, v@ aS, ZO @aS - ~T cA jq oq OU ja cc | cc BfcS ~A˻@ ~ASEOݩ s cq AaU j @ ~BS S | AOAin ccq W ja | T- AOA@l AcިU ZO Bwɦ @ ZS BfcSɩ @AaUS AAS, cR A宦 AABv Z S B v@ @ZS ɩ SAS | v T gAcKFl gcq | J TpF T v@ qSvFv AaU | gwF J UZ@ BfcS j@ T OUAaU q TTɻA^@ Tq | r An@ TS J UZ cha ZS, US ~S^cB An@- cHB^f UQ AcrK ~S^ ިm, UZ OA cn jce AAS ZS cɻhO TkUF UZ@ | @r@ SS SS OA @ ~AwT AShaS - c ATAU v@ ~ɮa TSq, A@ا q ZO sha T- AOA@l Z | ~T - J aUT - ZS jq @T BS @A s ASB e OAU Xp A@aq @ S s cc@ A@a Aq | ~T mUAr v@ @ cc BSf cq A@S R aɦ A@aq @ AAS | ZO TU A A j@ T cc cUUS, ~T sA JOr v@ TA@ A@Am RJ rA^AS@ةS BAT A@S ASq A@a | AT ~T mUAr kH v@ J A ~AT j mc AB AaUT | SQ˻ Qq jq ~cv@ب BS AaU | cc OU sc T ~crF ~T v@ AA AAaUS | ~T pA cc@ rK @@Tɮ ~^ A@av ASAT ~ ASޫ A AaUT |

~T T @f gc c@FAv AUZAaUS ~AT BAS S, jv@ب BAS cXoc c Q J mf@ AS:m Z sR c S, @H - J ~eZF cq jce jZS-~wA^ϩ-~@Ar @B AAS AS sSAS | AAS oްf AAF@, ~B AAr ca R J BS ~cF | mf- BSF J T @UBf UZ@ ~ @f Z s S ?



6


r A^@ cA^ AS AS ~ɦfS AS: BfcS @v c jTSv c AAS @ZS @\S @SAS | cc Sw gUcɮS, gUcɮS ASB W vAcU c AUZ AUZ cc cq A@ ɮAcf jFAgAS HOU Z | vT-cɮ-wA ~AcT rN J@ @ZS AcAc @AS TSAScr | s A AaU q c m J @a, q A 202-j ɩU av VFvAv | cɻer SwA@ TSKAv@ sZS S@ةU s AaU, AcKɰwm AaUS |

BfcS rK @@Av ca Tn q cA AaUS AAS | AcK gwaS, AS:ʩ @ aS, R-@v ~FO ~A aS, ɦ ASwpf aS, ~ɻBS AO^ g^ aS, rK s^ mf-@ TfA Ac rsFw Z ~F s^H gw @ @ ASBq TpF A@ jAw waS | cR, jq coFTkU@ AScɻSq, TSA@ @ ~ ~ɻBS O F @ @ AAS MJaAaUS J pArfU , J AAF@ BfcS r c | J @ @ ASBm coF @ T aS, @AcgcS @rS Sq, @Ac An@ c^ @ AaS, ~ sɰcި J Tsɻ S cI USTkU@ AF cI ST wa Wɦ @ | jq T AAS oTn ASB UZ AS T @ sw US | sZS-ZS OS-~OS TSK AS^ ~SwS c^ R AUZ AUZ @UT TZ ~oc@F c^ @ ޡrc i B ZU jce ~UOA̩ BS بAa | OU 202-j b@ ަ s B AaU, Ԯk S@ةU sR q @AiS | AcrK WASR kL dS, ~S @ZSɮZS | cc ZS Tg̩ AS cJ aS | TS cq A@ Sq, ~^ TA |

Tg @- T j@Av cq AUZ q j@ BfcS ˻@ c BSF s, A@ا Tg̩ @ AAS ~H @AaUS j@ Pc H | mf R ASf @ d @ cAv ~EOs Sv@ AUZaS 1965 @ 1973-j ToF | ~SocSswF F jq s 1944-j kH PWF wF-Sv@ T TU @Ar c cqr ca ~c Sv@ AAaUS AAS - mf R AHf A d U j@ j@ ~AcmHf Sv@ ATAaU | ~LBfcSf ZAOn ~J@ d @US ~T aUcU (1972), ~T sMcS (1973) A, ~ ~T @AcgcS (1974) AUZ AUZq F @UT JB ~@ml Ac ASUS | jq Tq cAa J WS @Ac cq TO-ަ @ wS (1966), j@AS : AOAS (1971) mw Ac (1971); ~EOs ~Sc F\AUS @Ac (1967) qS TA AU@ @Ac (1970) | A@rS UZ cU ~Sf LR AcAg^ n-An@ Ac Tv AUZUS ɩU @ ~U (1967) ɩ g cpA (1967) wU @S @U (1968) ~S ToF j@ (1968), Ac^ Acm (1969), d@AT (1972) jce j@ cpXo A- T ~oH c SFɮ | q c avw\AUR s ~SF j@ Tn aJAaU TH AT @TS ~a (1967) R Tn (1972) cq Av |

@ة cUc jq gU@ @ - sJ @fA ~eZF o cA | cFAw sɻ J g i@ aA ~a pAcf, A@ا s gK-AF BSF AAS BfcS lw @AaUS q ceU J AcrU ~cS c mf@pA c ɮA mf@pA, jZS AZ S | jTS A@ USTkU@ AF oH s AASq jr AS jUS, q c mf@pA @q ? USTkU@ AF Acgwq A@ pA@ةɻ@ F S Aa ?

~o ~Tq | ~T s J @a c H Hf, ~T s J@ ~^ PS@vF AaUT, mOQ ZAa J @TQT, HwA, Ͱs, c^ΨfA, anclU jce J ~TSF pArfU TS - q qUT AS:rN, sS ~T ʨ, Tk@, cAo | BAS, cXoc c T AcrU cpQ TkUF ASoɻH @c ASQ qAɮ, qA mgAc@ AST J F Tq J@ c | A@ا ~TR A@ q qAɮ PA @B ɩ Uwc AL Sq ?



7



~ɮ^ TpF OS ~^ AS ~ r ca cJO ASB c @B ^ @ s OAaUS AAS | j@q @BR Aa UAaUS | OS ew OA @US | ~AT c, cf OMof@ ASH @US J AF-ɰS swF Ao@f Ac, av av gw ~LBfcSf AUZ d @US, jTS A@ mf- ST j@Av qUR @US | cq Aa U AO | J rK AOAi - gwF ~T@q @ @AaU - J q T@ TS ~S | q TS T, gn^, A@ا ~rfS S | wf ~ɰr @Tq J ~Ao@ TSS | q @T Ar aɦ AAS j@cq m䨩 AaUS S, A@ا ASA J ~-Tn r ca ~ݨ-AgQ T @U S, ~m䨩 TSKAv@ ~T @ AaAS AS wU |

~T ~AmL B^U @q J cJo - s-@S Aީިnf Qnq v ~UF AST | A@ا ~T @U A-R AaU ~S@ | ^ Prrc J c ~TSF w\-@Ac H AaUT, sMcS fW T AaUT J anf - j@ sw o J ~^ nAcAST ToF A j@ AcU cFAw PS@vF ASݩ J@ @a AaUT | jq A @S US Sq |

TTf i@ ~S ~Sgc @cS jq nha Sl-q Aީިnf cɩɻ AcAST S - jq AOAin ToF Aq AAS ~T ~AH TS@ AH @aS, ArAQة @aS, cɮf T@ ~ es ZaS ABS - s j@@fL @ S , AcAha^co S @ | J AQH m ~T T R @ @ZS SAS | ~AT gwFcf |








cɮ 37; cA 27, 2006

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