cXoc c : me AS jce AS

AT Oncf


AS cAU @@ ? Av qeAB rN ceU ~Scɰ AS rNAv OAU | j@Av U jvFcAUrTxv (establishment), ~Av U qSAvAvrS (institution) | jvFcAUrTxv rNAv pb AgA mAީ @S ASTɻH cI | rNAv cFcY @S gcS, @S em, ~c @S cFA @T-BfcS @ػ | jvFcAUrTxv rNAv s-AAS@ة esw ZS AcAo-ASKo-AcoS A@a ASA rpU FAr | q AS s cFA-TSK mofS A@av Zc ~S@ T | rNAv jq cFS @q AAS@ة AST cJo, AAS@ة gC - qFA ~AgcFA B^ |

AS rNAv sZS qSAvAvrS-j ceU ArN ZSR ~S@Qnq ~w ~˻AUq cI | s-@S mU-@UB-AcrAcFU; ~c Ac @ cFcm; s-@S @sɻU - cq qSAvAvrS sZS ASA AcAo-AcoS TSF @q ʩ |

cR qSAvAvrS rNAv cFS jq AcAo-rA AAS@ة cqR ZAS@v A̩ | ~T sZS cAU - TSKAv ASBq j@Av AS - ZS jq A̩ ~˻ ~Sgcq j s ~T TS ToF | AS jTS j@ TcA@ة sZS j@Ao@ TTSm TSK j@n jTS @S @T-c pA @S s ~S@@ ~@KH @, ~S@ ݩ @, ~S@ TS Ag rA@ BAw U | q @Tɮ jTS j@Av A ~BS @ - AsAS c sJ T mAݩ - J T R U-Tk TpXo @ ~S@ TSK@ | jq ~˻q ~T @S @S TSK@ me AS cU S BSq | q TSKAv @S q w USAS | ASB TSq OOɻ @ waS @S AcK | A@ا J @B Acm jvq s, ~S@ J @a ~S; J r-ASr @p S; J ~ɰr TSZ ASB @B @c H S | ArQ@ ToF jTS TSK jZSR A@a A@a Z s | jq ~˻q ~T SfA@بT OoF, @بT S, A@ec FABl , A. Av. K-@ cU A me AS | Tcf w Ri jq Bɩf AS cTq Zc c T S R | m\Bfcf j@Av An@ - s cf @U dLkH iAaU AcAg^ A@ @ | ~c AS^q j@Av ~ɦ - sZS @ TS ̮ ew @AaUS ~S@ AAF@ R AFA@ TSK | q ~ɦ AAS@ TkUF T@U cI sAS v | cf T c TSK mpA@ sZS J J TS R~ TSS A @ AUZaS ZS ~Sgk a q ~ɦ dL | TS j@Av ~ɦ AaU AO An@@ @^ @ f^ S AcwS TkA-ިU cS, JAOU W cA Acr r@ O˻ r@ | q ~ɦ @^ AaUS f^S ިn R AO ɰ@ of^S | q ~ɦ AccH A @Ar a m^ w^ AO @بA ca - AUZaS AH@بT SFU | rASc AOAi An@@ AW w iAaU ~ j@Av ~ɦ | A@a A@a As@-̮ AccH R s An@ pq | q ~ɦ AcAg^ oH T R TSK j ATU AaUS | sTS - TAUU TBT, ~OF wmTf, wU U, Sf̰O^ OMof | @\UU An@ ~ @Ac An@ ~ɦ cHSR c kn ~B ~T BAS | R ~w AaU g̩f jce ԮcBn An@ ~ɦ |

@S An@ S, j@BS TSK@ AWR w i cBS TwT sZS @ S-TSS-empA OOɻ ~U-R aA s ~S@ TSK TS | qc TSK RiS AS R J AW q TcrR AS Tsɻ s ~S@ ofBS cAq jTS ~ɦ ~a jce AaU | Acer rNf O˻-ޡT r@ TrO^ S @AcAB jgcq w iAaU ԮAF c@ ATA | ceU AF AccS j@ v@ qAɮ o ~a ZSR |

s-@S AA An@@q ~T AS cU A | ~c j@BS cFAR ~ɦ cFA@R wHF S AS | H m ST @ s ~AgoH H AOH c^FoF, AcSf T^^ Ancf | J s-c @B @aS -@B ~S@v j@q @aS; AS mS @ S | A@ا J @B OAn jTSgc Tswf R BSTZf AaU s U ~T fW@U jce ~BR gw @ OUAa | jgcq AF ~^w sR s-@S AS j@Av AcAr UQH | TTS, AcFɮw, c^S i@ب, Acc@S^ TZ cFAL @T AccH cUFco r @ @ Ac̩ qUT |

cXoc c ToF dH cݮ @q AS Ri UQH AcFTS AaU | sAR mU an @@UfS TɩpfS, Aީp-cA, TɩT mSrɮS-UAU cXoc ASB UZަ Bw A@av j@q cɮ @S; c J ToF j@w To-BU jce Ar\-AF A@ػ TSAS@ AS AcFSwf, cAXoTS an R A@r-dH ~@KH @̩ | @S @B @c @ sZS gcaS, @B ɩ AaS ZS eZF ~\ UR ~Swf ~SwTf J @aS | cXoc ASB mpA@AU @ jce J c^Ψ-c^c, Lf, ިn@SF, an-anf mpAOH @R ~Sgc @ s s, ~S@@ To @ Zc jce ~@p @c j@v Bɩ QT AaU J | OAA@ @ TSK @^ AcB @S AAS | j-@S OS @MrU S, jq ~@KS B^ AS J cFAL FA @ | sJ cFA R AS RiS J OAn jq PcArF @q | -BSF 202 ɮAcf ~FAgAS- j cAAv iAaU @Ac-gcS ST AS | A@ا 1937 AZN WvS | R ~S@ ~w @ cXoc c sZS @S ZSq J@ AW w Ri Tcr | TS-TSS-Y B WSfgk AFT cɩcH |

cXoc c cAr@ fQ fH US 1925 AZN | J AS-TSm ~SFT ASHɻ@ An@ ɰS R @r @c cFw | An@q q T - s j@BS ɰS @UR jce UZ@ j@ j@ AUZUR @U rF AScA | i@-@بU Y B UQF OS | cXoc @a jq Y B @ZSR m BSAݩ AaU S |

mU cU@ sZS AaUS, ZS @q cXoc c An@- A gUcɮ BAAaUS | mU-an ToF UZ An@ @c RB AaU ZS | ީ@ (cXoc c ~T aUcU- AUZaS - "Ac@r ~c ީ@ ST j@Av UZ TA@n ~AT ɰ@, oS UZ@ R AUA@; ...") ~ QAH@ ST Av m\mf An@- U @ 1925-j AAS c @US UZ wA An@ | f AaUS c^Ψ vS ~ɻl cf@U @Ac, ~oF@, wcK@ ~AB | @a@Aa AaUS ~R @ش @ش - ~ASU gOs, ofr Wv@, AQةf^ , gOH i@ب̩, gp i@ب̩, ATe T, , TS WK, ATU , ~TU^ c, T^ WK |

jq c^Ψ @Uq ~crF Ai@ j@q T BTݩ SAS | UZ wA TA cHTU kH wH @AaU 1927- j | -ca qxvATAv fQ AXf mS ~Ao@ @ @بA v@ cpA wA-@ ިɰm TA@ An@ A @US cXoc | cXoc c mAީ T AS jq wA An@ - T @r 1334 cN ~Kb ~ɻl BS-BUq 1927 |

j@Av AS oS UQS T-TSgc-^ @@BS - ~^ -BS TSK esw; jce UQF @S j@ A@\S o ~S@ @a MJaS, ~R ~S@@ @a vS | wA T @q jq UQF kH @AaU | T j@r v@ U j@Av @wB c @ s | rBS TTf ~Aco U S sJ T r v@ @ cS | j@n US dH UZ@-wɤf | ca j@v cAr T OUAaU jq An@ | rK eZF @Ar AaU 1336 cN ~ArS (1929)|

j@Av AS ~AScsgc S UR j@Av mSR ~Uw j@v sw @ | j@Av @S cA R W, O-j @S, @UB-AcrAcFU OL, @S c-j F ATAU c j@v Bw @U AS cr BTv | wA An@ B^ R BTS TS j@ mSR gkAT@ AaU | ިS \vS -j AvS W jq knq AcZFɩ ~a |

cXoc TɩT AO^H Ae ɩ AaUS 1924- j | TɩTf mHcU A@a@U J gq-j ~r @ b@ ިH \vS ~U j@Av cA UUS, qv JAOU W Uc j@Av AvS W | TAv TI jce Uc WAv ASAv AvrS ASAv W ^A̩ | cXoc ~er TAv ATxv j U | @pA-ASAc q cɮmS | UfT, ~AB ~ UBcf U, mUX j@v k cvwa AZ @ | ZU Ti, ZU ~@r, TW-ks-oR R | AvS W AS SS T wT; c c@ | jq AvS W R wA An@ cXoc c mAީ T AS - Ai@S 47 Se ިS \vS | ~S@ c^Ψ, O ~ɦ; ceU R EOɩF AF AS gc-AcAST, To gw @ SR, Ac@ػ | q ASB UZ OOɻ | wA An@ @sɻU iAaU q AvS W |

wA An@@ @S cUAa j@Av AS - j@v gc Z s | wA- Ai@ ~wq @Ar a @\UU (1923-1929), rASc AOAi (T @r 1924), Դ (T @r 1925) jce wA q @r a AcAOn | A@ا jq An@AU SS UZ@ ~Acgɻc jce @S @S Qn SS pAgA mf@H WvUR AXo ̲@ ~mf@ @c PrA\@ XoF AaU S | c oS UZ@q mS AS J | cf^S AS AmA AaU ~Ao@er An@ | rASc AOAi- Ag^ TkU AaU QHrfU A ~SwF | ~oAS@ @S AXo AFoH cmS | A@ا wA- ɰ@ ASA UQF AaU T TsXoɫ ~oAS@ة s UQH-Tk EOF AF Amبv q T˻S pb T @r @ | An@ OUc BS TI TIq ~crF A@av AXo oS UZR AS a J@ | c J OS ɮ mĩq ScF ~oAS@ gco A @c A@ An AaU cq |

wA- TA@f ST j@Av Acgw @ة | cXoc rq ASB T^cF AUZS ZS | j@T j@Av T^cF Xop @Aa -

"~oS ceU AF j@Av T Acm@ R ~AgSc movement d a, j@ ~T Acrɮ @A, jce q Sc- ~mɰ ceU F@ ArAQة ^S@ wH @c g wA ASa |"

(TA@f, PBF, 1335 cN)

jq g @cU SR S, AL US UR AaU jq m\mf An@Av | jq An@ pq BfcSS^ ~oAS@ة m AOAS c O J @Ac aAaUS cXoc | BfcSS^ @Ac cFZF @, J ScfSL@ T˻S @ AUZAaUS j@Ao@ c^ (@U ިU w^ e@AU)|

wA- p B A cf^-~S@H AcQ T @r @AaUS cXoc | j-AcK wA An@ @ػ J ASB A -

"cf^S TZTAZ j@Av ~A-~crF@ cIަ OR ZSq ~T T @AaUT | cIަ - TS, jTS @S cFcm, A@ec cU s@ ~T A@ @ mA, s cf^S AcrU BU ~T ~v@ S A@ AO@U, J@ ~T Q Sf R cFcs @ U A | U@ j ST AAaU cf^-Ac, ...."

(~T sMcS, 1976, p. 24)|

T@UfS ~SF An@AUR SS m OS @Ar a | A@ا cf^S ~S@Hq AF OS j@Tn S - j@ cc c^ WKH @ @Bv @AaUS cXoc | ~w mH @ s @cU ~AO^F@بT S @\UU-j @Ar @AcAv -
"Z @بS cA dAo cf^ i@ب
~S OQ @ BAUc s fc fQS ~U
sw-ks S @a | ......"
~AO^F@بT @Ac jq WKHAv@ sA, @ػ, AcrKH, ިSdA AcAg^ UZ @p ~˻ AA @AaUS cXoc c wA- p |

@cU @Acq S | SS mɰ R PrUf w\ UZ R AUAZ SRcR O @AaUS cXoc c jq An@ ɩ | T@UfS EOɩF AF ZS WvS-ASg w\-v j Bw j@v j@v Z sha ~L@S-TkU@ jce f@f w\ cS | @R WvS Ac ~U-~UOS-Ac@ػ ToF j@Av w\-~gɮ rK sha | @R Ac ~cH UZ@ sS TB-TUOS j@Av gK-~cc w UaS | @R T TsXo- @U TSK AXo-X^, w^cFfS ~ASEOݩ O بv ia w\ AHA-AcfS AHT | rFTU aXST AcG cr @@Av avw\ AUZAaUS wA- | wA fWmf U SS fA avw\ pb A Wv s RZSq | ceU avw\ jq SS fA BSF ~T ~Q @ AaU ~R AS r@ 1954-1955 s^ |

T TsXo @U qeAB cFf qf AF PcAOnF A@ pA AaU cCAU UZ@ | jq ~w T BwH WAvAaUS c T OMof | c @U-@بrU @SAvSSvFU a @UR ɮA cU ~Scɰ R ~UOS ToF A @\UU-q qf @ɮAF cFA R PcAOnF@ jS AAaU i@ @a@Aa | q oɮkn U ASAaU wA | cXoc c ~-P@r @SAvSSv-~Swf - ~^ AF R Ar\@U A@ @ | wA- @Ac R w\ ~Scɰ aɦ AcAr AF AS UZ a c^ | Ar R BS AF @ػR UZ a ~S@ | ~Scɰ @ a dr @ɮAF R BS @Ac |

c ATAU -ca AS Tɮ BfAc @ j@Av An@ - s wɤf Fcw cݮ ASr @ JAOr ToF - ceU AF jvq \UZswF j@ AS s wA-@ cɰ A Acr r@ ceU @Ac ~UOS kH S |

wA- T@Uq AS-mA cXoc c TS-OAn R @Tf-OAn ~R A@a AO q | b@ AcrAcFU ~cA@ة AcrK B R | ~S@AU ancɮ AaU jce cA @ ަ ~ɮ anR s @ @S S @S anc Acp | cXoc c s AaUS Bw^ U ST@ anc | ZS AAS mɩ@ m an | an-e AScɻOS AF-ɰ@ ްf Ac J U J@ c^Ψ ~w | AScɻOS Bf US jce q @BAvR OAU AUS AAS | J ASBq gK "@ATAv, c-@ATAv, @SAmvvFrS, ~qS @ػ qFA AAS@ XoA TSF @q |" q Bw^ U-j cAK@ An@ cɮA^@ AAS j@ ca ɰS @AaUS | An@-Bɩf AS cXoc H ~T ~ TS TA ZJB S | jq @UB-anc cɮA^@ J iAaU T rAH An@ | J TAxv@ TS mHf ~AgcFA @cf @Ac ceU AF j@ mf AO - @Ar AaU cɮA^@-q |

AF pA ~ AF iS-iS ~SAcAha^ AST @H cXoc c J SvF-Ag ss ~SrfUS @ s SAS jce w U SAS Sv@OOɻ en^ @S AS | A@ا R cfB ~ߨA̩ AaU J cUF cq | rS s@ J ASB gKq | ZS @S SZAU, cݮ -Oɳ- cAr S - "~AT il j@BS ~AgS iAa, jTSA@ w UAa ~T Tcݮf c ~T Oq ~\ c @@Av aU@ BAv j@Av ASBm Sv@ U; @S BިdK Ac c ~gF˻Sɮg jce ~SFSF UQR ~AgS c ~cpA BSF @ ~T - BɦɩAU r-ɩ mvB @ Ql vɴSU-T TrS Aa ~T |" (~T aUcU, jT. A. @ ~F S, 1973, p. 52) cf@UR SvFU w U A@a ɮ AaU | sZS @U@ɩ cɮ @aS Sc-AccA Lf - ZSR Sv@ AUZaS | c^Ψ ATU TI TI ~AgS @aS q Sv@ | SvFU ST AaS AUvU Av | jq SvFfA U R AAS Sv@ AUZaS; ~S@ SF prFAcSFɮ WAvaS Sv@ T @; ~ AFpA AH c j@ha ~kc @cFSvF AUZ ceU AF jq o ~aS AcrK \UZswF ToF ~SFT |

cXoc c @U@ɩ TSwf ASB@ AA @c ~@ AS b@ Fw @US 1931 AZN | ASAT @S O@A Sq | jT. j. ɮ @aS cU @UB ~oF@ ް c Fr @S | AUZ jce qgv vFrAS @ OAU Sc O @S AS | ZS AO An@ @Ar a (1931), ca @Ar U kNcɻr (1932)| T @r @بAT\U UR @@Tɮ q kNcɻr- i jU @U@ɩ | cXoc c @Ac @Ar Av An@q | A@ا AS Av snT of^S jce sgc gOs R F^ ASBm | cXoc c ASB Bw S |

qToF cXoc c AUZ OUaS jce ~Sgc @aS s, SFɮ, avw\, av w\ cq-j @r@ A@a A@a R wUR - @Ac cq-j @r@ Sq | ~Ao@er @r@ TAr UZ AUAZ AS OS; UZ@ gUcɮ UZAv @r @ OS S | J cFcf, ~Ao@erq AF-AT@ SS | q cXoc c T UZ@ Acq ASB @r @US ASB R c^Ψ ~AO^F @بT Av @Ac cq - snT j@Av @ R ~T | AAS gcUS ASB j@Av @rS-em @ | ASB j@Av @rS-em PAR @ UUS - ST AUS w^@-TUf | cXoc c mAީ ~ j@Av AS | jq @rS-AS mS ~AgUK R B AAS ~S@AS cB ZAaUS | w^@-TUf- T ~SAg ɮ Ac@Ar AaU @Ac-gcS @rS-em | sAR \UZF s AcG - T e@US Դcrf R ~vAT @r | w^@-TUf @q | ceU AF v@ v@ qAɮ Ag بU T بv iAaU @Ac-gcS @ | cXoc c AaUS AcU q @r@ j@BS - AsAS @S ~˻q cFc BSF S, AF@ gUc mS @AaUS @rS em |

@U@ɩ j@v Amϩ q cXoc c ~c IJA ަUS An@ ɰS | swF ASf Ag T J Acc U 1934-j, wUT T TFSrS ST@ j@Av cA e ɩUS J | AS UZ@ Ac cr AAOA waS cXoc | SS e, A@ا mTf-mf BSq AFH, c^ΨfA ^ jce ~AA-clU | c^Ψ-c^c sR ~ɮ AaU s | q cAq 1935 AZmvN ~vc T T @Ar U @Ac An@ (~ArS 1342 cN)| T -ca ɰ@ AaUS cXoc c R T^ ATn, -ɰ@ AaUS T S |

@Ac An@ cf JAOr ca o (rK eZFAv @Ar AaU POn 1367 cN; 1961 AZmvN) ceU AF, AcrK ceU @Ac ~ɮ @S gkAT@ US @AaU c ~UOS @aS wcK@ jce AF-i@ | ~T Acmp ~UOS sc S | cXoc c UZ ~T @AcgcS (T @r- r̰f r, 1381 cN) w^ R sc jq An@ ~^ qAɮ | gɩ@بT @Ac An@ kAOw qAɮ-j R sc ~SkAc@ AccH |

JOATrAU An@ sZS ZS @Ac cA Bw gv @c s ZSR ~S@vq OU AaU q ~Tsɻ Bw @ U jS @Ac@ kH S AA @c qha AaU J | AO@Uq ~oAS@ @Ac@ i@ @a MJa c e@\ ~S ZaS TS ToF | AO-j Pci@ ~^r FAv TS A, Ar@w @ @Ar qAv An@ Z cXoc c qha U @cUq @Ac ~ @Ac-AcK@ wF AS j@Av An@ @r @cS | q An@q @Ac |

T eZFAv@q, A@a TUOS @UR, mw BSUS cf^S | q T eZF Zq jRɦ vTS vqT AUvA AUTxv-j 1936-j 1 cA eZF ceUr @Ac AS ~UOS @US | @Ac FBɩ q U ~^BɻA@ mf@pA |

SS ~oAS@ @Ac ~rmU iAaU @Ac An@; AA @AaU ~S@ dH @Ac@ | jq An@q i@ AOSAaUS ~AT Oncf, T S, @TQfɰ OoF, ~AB , ~dH@بT @, Sr -@ | cf@U @pAcɮ-wɤf @Ac ~S@q @Ac- ~L@r @AaUS @pAcɮ-j ~wq | sTS r WK, ~S^ cwOf, ~U@̵S r | @Ac-AcK@ ~F@p c c^ @Ar a @Ac | @ZSR @ZSR cAB a Ac@ػ | TI TIq @Ar a AcrK eZF | cf^S, SBdU, BfcSS^, of^S @ AS @Ar AcrK eZFAU ~BR ~T @B Uw | j@v ~SF oS j@ j@Av AcrK eZF AaU fAT ~AgSc A@\S خU | sTS 1950-j @Ar TA@ػS eZF | ASr BS ~TA@f @Ac @Ac; A@a @Ac TkU jce ~Scɰ rAr; q ɴ R jAUv-j AOAi | ATH m\q A@ا jq oS wA-gC ~@ ceU @Ac An@ ~w @ZSR Z sAS | ԮcBn, @\UU, AO-@ TS ZR j@ cU s | AOSrf @Ac ~ScɰR co dL @ jq An@q T mS | Acrf AF ST j@Av ASAT Acgwq AaU @Ac- | ~crF j@ ca Av i s A@ا crf @Ac A ^Z fA AaU jq An@ PcArF | Aw@ @Ac TAnݮ @ީSA@خ @ d @ A @Ac gUA, UAS ~TA@ wAcU ATmU qv, ɴ, jAU~v, AU@, FUAUS, cɰUF-j AmA AaU ~AcU - ~Sc, ~UOS, w^-TfQ, ec | @Ac An@ j@Av AXgAK@ eZFR @Ar AaU 1953- | A@a ceU @Ac, A@a qeAB; A@a ceU @Ac ~Scɰ; T R JRAU @Ac ~Scɰ - jq AS AXgAK@ eZF @Ar R Tn AS:rAK , Acr @ ~ɻ ~, ިSTH Ac Ri | cXoc c @Ac BSF i@ TS jTSq j@Av OA pA @ QT AaUS |

@Ac An@ rT eZFAv @r U ~^BɻA@ eZF - qxvSFrSU Sɲc (1960) ST | cCAU R ~SFSF g̩f gK @@BS @Ac OS qeAB ~Scɰ; q qeAB gKf @Ac @Ac ceU ~Scɰ - Tv SAv @Ac e@US | jq cU AS ɰ@f AUZS c jAv̮ Sv-j cXoc WKH @AaUS s, jq eZFAv@ J ATAve wɴ ~c SrS (Meeting ground of Nations)@ U OS | jq Fr J AaU; jq m@ F cU Acrɮ @c QT J AaU | j-BSFq J@ cAU AS | AAS BSS - j@ Ac^ ArAr ks o ; AAS BSS Ԯc iJq T W ~a, ~AT q W Uc ZJAB| jTS TSKq ~S^ cST AS w U S |

An@ AS Ri jq Sr cXoc c AaU rK BfcS s^ | ASB @rS em @AcgcS-j BSF j@Av cAK@ e@US @r @S AAS | ST AaU PcrZf | R e@PU ~S@ UZ | TkS @Ac AO R m Hwf AaUS J | O An@ AaU TkS @Ac A@\S | T @Ar AaU 1938- j (~ArS 1345 cN) | ZSR T ca s ɰ@ AaUS cXoc c | q ްAv a AUR esw AcAha^ AS | j@Av An@ dL jq s, cA cTS empA@ m^S R ~AgcFA@ AUAcXo mAL | cXoc c An@ cFAv jq ls UANo @AaUS cUq An@ ToF A empA ~SrfUS@ ~cF Z An ASB@ s S Z mAm S S | empA q HcS R c o ASB Bw TS AAv sɻ@ AAS ATAU A l@ AaUS | q An@ J @a AaU Ac@\fS j@ AS |

An@q WSfgk @rS-em - cXoc AXf dLkH AAS@ @B w^@-TUf ST ~mبv ɮ of of kH UwU | AS c-A i jaS 202, ɮAcf ~FAgAS-j cA | q cA @q @Ac An@ j @Ar c | sAR @Ac An@- SS Ai@S @AcgcS rNAv AaU S A@ا ~Kb 1344 cN (BS 1937) @Ac- T S @@Av @Ac e@US AcS @AcgcS rNAv ~a | @AcgcS STAv sS ~S @q بv iU | @Ac An@ @sɻU jce @AcSwf Ac ~cɮ swl | @rS-em STR gcq wU @AcgcS | @Ar UwU SS @Ac @Ac cq - cXoc c @cf, gK TZoF T @Ac-e@US ްA@, T S @@Av @Ac, ~AT Oncf ~AgS c^ | ASgU TH, prF vq, pA-S^S ha ~O T cAr S - @AcgcS @rS-em j@v ~ɰrq iU AF-Bw | UZ@ ASB cq-j ~A˻@ cS @cS jvq r AaU | A@ا ~S@ T UZ@ c ZO A i S S | Qn cXoc c@q jAw ~ɮ | AcSR AASq AS |

@AcgcS-j @rS ~oAS@ ceU @Ac ~QA@ ~˻q AA@ | cf^- c @Ac @Ac AUZaS, ASB cF e@USR @r @aS sɮc | A@ا @S e@US-w^ AcSFm TkUF ha S J UZ | ca ~w S^ c ɰS @AaUS @cF-fAU (1927)| @r@ ofO^ @ fc ~A LLR S^ c ~w q e@US mS AaUS T^ ATn, cXoc c jce ArcT Oncf | 1938-j cf^S ɰS @Ar U ceU @cF AO | @Ac AaU BfcSS^, of^S, ~AT Oncf, ~AO^F@بT S, gOs, T^ ATn, ~^re@ , cXoc c, ~AB , TSfr Wv@, ASr | c q e@US AcrK @ ~ZAr @AaU ~oAS@ @Ac | e@US AaUS S gK TZoF, @^ gOs, T S jce J ~wB AcG | @Ac AScɻOSR SAS @Ac | q @cUq ~oAS@ @Ac AS j@Av e@US @c @ gc U | ɰS AL US f^S TZoF ~ ~c f ~qݨc | A@ا @T-ɰS Aegwq ^ @AaUS cXoc c | q ɰ@ T ATU AS ~S@ Qnq | BS AUZAaUS Av ~Uɰ ɰ@f | cXoc R A@a A@a TPS@F AaU q ɰ@q | cXoc ASB @ UZc swR SAS | LLR Jq AS^ @AcgcS @ @Ar U ~oAS@ ceU @Ac T e@US - s ̨q cf^S@ A | @AcgcS- j ~AgS c jTNT AaU - b j j@Av SM@ | Av T Z 1942-j | @AcgcS @ @Ar AaU ~R ~S@ cq A@ا AcrK \UZswF j@ ݮ j@Av w^TU | jq A@\S ToFR ASA AaU gAcKFl Ac@r cS | ~S@vq UR a |

jq A@\S T rF AaU j@Av ~AgScL mɰ R, s @Ac A@ ~@p i@ TS | AXf rF AaU AFq @T T rgS-rS gU @Ac j@Av @ ha U R @Ac-i@ | ATq qB KU p cq | A p T j@ ݮ Ac KU ݮ - q T O ~S T | @Ac eZF AS @S ASAĩ AaU S | KUAv p ~ɻl j@ Tɻ sAU @Ac sgc BS s - AUq @ة | ~S@ cUS jq AAB-j j@Av AcAr ~ɰr AaU | ~UF-cɮf jce qeAB gK AcAr SFA@ BT Bݮ @AcR AUZS | J @@Av @Ac j@Av e@US @Ar 1927-j | Av @Ac jq e@USAv ST Bݮ AAaUS 'POMES PENY each' | T(Poems)S, T(Pomes)- hacO@ jq hOH j@v ~c˻q | c AS j@ ArAUe | cqAv T AaU j@ ArAUe | j@Av @Ac j@ ArAUe-j | j@Av @Ac ST AaU AvAU(Tilly),~UF-j OUA gK Ԭɴ ~ɻl ~AA̽ | q @Ac eZF | cXoc c ~crFq BSS Bݮ-j @Ac-ިAm@Av @ | J c^ΨR BSS | cTS UZ@@ j-@ cUAaUS ~^r R AcTUɰ TZoF | BSq @Ac-w^ @Ar j@ ݮ j@Av w^TU |

A@ا AAB-j ST qAʩ cXoc B @a @ ASUR jq w^TU A@\S AaU J ASBm | ~A prF R caq @ av av @Ac cq m\ TkUF @Ac i@@ R - jq AaU J e@\ | ~rɩf ɬUF AaUS AAS | @Ar AaU 1942 @ 1944 AZmvN s^ - cXo eZF ~iAv | F@Avq BSA AaU | AXf emH AaU OAv cq-j | jq AAB-j @Ar cSU S-j T emH @Ac BfcSS^@ AcިU AAOA AAaU jce ~oAS@ TAxv@ @Ac j@ p^q mS @AaU ceU @Ac-i@ TS | ~AT Oncf TAv U AaU jq AAB-j AcAr e@US | ZSR ~AT Oncf OS-PrUf i@ ~gFm SAS | jq SS@ OSc AL sS wH @AaUS @r@ cXoc c | TUOH OoF AXf @Ac-e@US TS-cS @Ar jq AAB-j, ZSR TUOH ScfS @Ac | q T ~F^ dH q @Ac T S ZU AOAi ~ ɰ ATn gTH @r jq AAB-j |

cɻAo@ \UZswF ~^r a, ZSR a-AUAZ cU J @S AAOA AaU S | cXoc c @@Av @Ac OqU ~^r @UT il SS oS a j s | q T T@Ai ~SgFm oS @Ac | cXoc c ɰ AU TA @S | ~^r AcZFɩ a - jgcq T MJa wU i@ |

jq @Ac-w^AU @AcgcS @rSf -~^AU Sf - TA | Ai@S q AcZFɩ 202 ɮAcf ~FAgAS, @U@ɩ | j@R \UZF s, cqAU ha jJ@AaUS sATSf , r , T^S Oncf TZ Ar\f | cXoc c @A^@ ~w R cFAw @ػ vSq c AaU jq Tcr | j@ ݮ j@Av AAB-j ~iAv @Ac jq ha ceU AF j@Av \UZswF WvS | jq AABAv j@ Tɻ T @Ac cq R An@@ jTSq ~AgBɩF AAaU s, jZSR s^ prF, j@-Tɻ @Ac @wB R cq mkU @Uc cq R An@ ToF A sAS | jq TAvR ~a j@ ASBm AF |

@Ac-AABAv ɬUF lA cXoc c 1943 @ j@Av avw\-w^TU AAB-j A@\S @S | jq w^TU ɰ@ AaUS Ag c | jAvR AaU OTl@ | @ة j@Av c Av @ w\ | mha T w\ AAaUS TAS@ c^FoF - s cJO | AUZAaUS T OMof, ~^r , UfU TBT, S^S ATn, BrZ c, kHrrf cf, BFATɻU cf, ~AO^F@بT S, ATU |

A@av ~ɻgc, TkU cXoc c nT ASB UZ, wcKH, ~oFS cAr BA ަ Av AABq j@ T c^ wU | A@ا AXf AcrsXo sZS OUa - q BPSA@ ~^US, T^^, c@ TF, TkUFcpAXo, cTɩ sw - AF T cɩS ZU Z jq j@w ~T @a ~B j@ Acɰf rA cUq Agɩ |

AS ASA j@Av mS ~Uw j@v sw ~a j-@ ~w cUAa | @AcgcS @rS AS jce 202 ɮAcf ~FAgAS-j cAAv gcq ~f ~a | jq cA AAv ^F ɰ ^먽 @ة Ar\f-AAF@ BSF | ToF j@c ASAT AFgR OUS @AaUS cXoc - T c - rASc ^F c Acc @U | cXoc me, wp@ػnf Ag c, cU@ R A@rcm ިn@SF - @Uq j@^ gUcɮ ~FS @S ~AA | @ة, cXoc c gK ԮcS A@a ZɰF| TI TI ~SF F cAR g c | A@ا AFgq fTcXo AaU S @AcgcS ASAv | ZS AASq Tcr, AASq ~FS jce S^AS@ة ~S^T cɩcH | dH @Ac jce @AcAT@ @ cU cUF; ZS TI TI ~ɮS sATSf , ~UO^ | j@c jAaUS T OMof - sS ԮcBn-j AF j ATUU @Ac- | ~ɮS TAS@ c^FoF jce BfcSS^ r T TSK sJ cn mha^ S S | @AcgcS-j jq ~cRAv cXoc c jce Ag c - BSq @S @S w\-SF TI TI بv ia |

cXoc c mAީ rK AS, cU s sɰcި AcrAcFU USTkU@خAF Acgw | SS oS AcK | ~ɰr jAaU EOɩF AcrAcFUAU @ | ~oF@ AaUS @ش @ش AcAr - ɰ JU, ɰ ~JS, : A@ TrɻU | cCAU ~oF@ ToF AaUS S^S gOs, cXoc c me jce of^S | of^S jT. j. ɮ AaUS S cU ~AR iAaU | A@ا cXoc J AS c @AaUS q ~ɩ-~AST | j oS @B T˻SswF A@S Ac@ػ ~T sc S | A@ا j-v@ب cUc - of^S@ ~oF@ Ac ~S @ TkU of^S cFAw @ػ c^S AaU S | of^S ST TSKAv AFS R co cFA AaU USTkU@ AF ~oF@ c Q ~ɰr | S U, jTS @ػ cXoc c cBS q AaU | jce J AAw ASR @S r i S | A@ا of^S aɦ ~ @ɴ@ AAS @SAS |

jq USTkU@ AF Acgw T @@ ca sJ ananf AaUS, sJ ASB ArAQة @AaUS cXoc c jce kcɻ ~oF@ - J @Uq cf @U ceU jce ~^BɻA@ Qn @S-S-@S A@ ASB ST@ @T-cAr AA @aS | J @ش @ش pArfU AAF@ - sTS Sr (Sr ~crF FQ an AaUS S, AaUS fW AS @Tf), ScSf cS, Hc^ r, AcF^ AU | @ش @ش iS-iS Bw wcKHTkU@ @B @c BSF jce ~ScɰTkU@ OS BSF AcAr ~aS | sTS TSc^ c^FoF, ScSf cS, ~AT c, @TUr OoF, Tf S (Tf S UZ cXoc BfcSf jZS cXoc A@ػ s @S @B BSF ~crFiF), T^f c Ae (ASB UZ aɦR Aީ AcAg^ OS@ ss Tsɻ eAQة Z @B sJ AS R Qة qToFq TAH)|

sJ FQ an AaUS S A@ا dH ~oF@ Ac sw AAaUS JR j@-j@BS ZFɩST wcK@ - mS TBT, ɩ cf OMof wcKHTkU@ @B ~-AcmH swF | j@Av AS jgcq ɬUF TH @ | AS @cU Aɩ S | AS rA R oS fAc RiS ~R ~S@ TSK | ceU empA j@Ao@ ˻@ AS cXoc c@ ~T STm |




cɮ 40; BSA, 2008

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