cXoc c A ~oAS@ ceU @Ac
emAH@ ig

Tf S


T emH : \S 1360 (TO 1954)
AXf emH : \S 1362 (TO 1956)
pf emH : ~Kb 1366 (BUq 1959)
O˻ emH : gɰ 1370 (~wmv 1963)
ޡT emH : ~ArS 1380 (vc 1973)

T emH cf^S @Ac AaU KUAv ; pf emH j eZFv c U - ޡT emH ~c KUq A wU | jq emH rBS SS dH @Ac s US, U ިS A@a A@a g @Tc BS Z AAaU - @Ac R @Ac w ~Sɩ JOAv emHq 1 : 3.5 c ~rr wa | T emH @Ac eZF AaU 49, @Ac eZF 176 ; AXf emH @Ac eZF c U 55, @Ac eZF JU 196 | ޡT emH Aw @Ac eZF JAa 67, @Ac eZF 239 | r c Ao@ @Ac ~a jTS @Ac eZF JOBS - BfcSS^, cf^S, ~AT Oncf, cXoc c, T S | @Ac eZF r @T A@ا JO c cAr jTS @Ac eZF SBS - @بT , SBdU qUT, of^S , T^ ATn, ~^r , ~AB , gOs, AcG R gK TZoF |

eZF cf^S O cAr @Ac AScɻAO a oTn BfcSS^ - O˻ R ޡT emH | A@ا o eZF S, cXoc c ~c@ @ S J @Ac AScɻOS | ~oAS@ @Ac s-@S e@US cf^S @ ca U cJAr, Arf˻, ~AT, T AS ks c SS @kU AScɻOS@ cU s m:AXo, s @S ɰ@ Qq jq @AcAU AScɻOS S @ Sq | A@ا ~T JOv Zq AS BS j | s @Ac ~̯ ha ԰UAaS T ްFw^f Anް A, "بU cJo IUS" T PcGc ްcUf @ U ~S AOn@\ A, @Ac @f @ ~oAS@ ްcOF ? Acg^ TS AS ~T ~@c @AcAv Ag cr @c O @A, ~ ZSq ~T SS @ OZ ~^Av - "AS cɩ AaU AT BS, ~TA TS U BS - ~@r ~@r ~AaU aS T A US |" jUTU cɩ TSK TS ~eU AO^ US, c ~@r ~U A A US - Av AcKT cm@ j@Av ~cF˻ T ATAU c jq QT ~oAS@ ~w@ @Ac AaU S, j@q cU s ~oAS@ة @بUUQH | ~T TS s, j@Av c^ cXoc cq ~T cAIAaUS @AU cf^S TkU ˻@F @ - "T Bc sS, @بT ̩S, @k @H @بߨT O^S" - j s^ @AUɮ AUZq S A@ا "Zf Bc Z T" AUZ S S | Z T A s Zf@ BS s jq oH T@Ac @AU @a ~@\Sf AaU | jq @AcR cf^S PcGc @Ac wA aA cA ~S sZS cUS, "cJAoS s AZ S T, AZ ZU S ZU S" - S s AZ S s Ofɮ-AcFA @\S AaU S, jqZSq jq @Ac ~oAS@ ްcOF iU | cXoc J AScɻOS ToF A ~T cf^S AcKR ArAQة @ US, J OZ A ަU ~T AOOS cf^S ~FArgc ~oAS@ة j Uw, J AcK SS @ gc |

~@Av ~EOs AScɻOS SfUɵSa | @AcAv AcXo wF UZ, A@ا cf^S gK Bɰ cFv ~T ZUq @A S - "SfUɵSa, ب\U @ذccS | Bc@ب rFTcS^, cScfA@ WSw^ | T^ Sc SfUSf̰A@fH Aw^ | AO T ^ @^Ac@^ |" OAv c@F, A@ا j@AvR Anް Sq - ި ~cAv @R A@a Wva S, Tm cFvq ~a | w A A gw @ s jTS Amبv a^ Sq @R, A@ا wU UAv@ c@ ToF ~Sgc @ s | ~ ~T BAS @q cU ~oAS@ @Ac s OZ Z wF T A@ا @S R @Ac T @B @ | ATU Sq A@ا ATU ~c WAS ia scFS ~SɮAU ToF A | @AcAv cc ަ @U i@ c@ ToF WScKɻ TW ASAc Ri ; ~Fl@p gK j@Av ASBm Bɰ @, ~T jTS Bw A AS s sZS ~T ~SF @Sgcq MJa ̩T S | gKw ~oAS@ة j@ rfKAc^ mr @ ~a jq Qب @AcAv | OSAv s, A@ا Av cɰ A o @Ac Acq j ̮wH co S ~T |

jq e@US cXoc cO cAr ~ASEOݩ gwaS BfcSS^ @Ac AS | T emH J @Ac eZF AaU r, AXf emH S, pf emH , O˻ R ޡT emH ASr | T emH J @Ac @T c @Hv ~STS @ @ S - ZS J TS ww @a J TFcɰf c^Ψ @ T cqAv (1940) mpA, ZS BfcSS^ @Ac AaU OAvTn | J B AAaUS (cXoc gK) ԮTAB@ AcK, Ac@ػ, cF, TSSoAT, SkS gAcKF A@ ^Z, jq @T @@Av AO ; ceU @Ac jq UQHU F Z Aa q T, ZS@ T A@q AcrKgc IJ@ ަ ~mgAc@ AaU S | A@ا j U ~SF A@ ~kH Wv wU, wfoAT mS U e@بAO ; AOn@\oS @Ac, ~cwcH @Ac s Tsɻ U S | @Ac q AT@ Tsɻ@ AA ~S Aw cXoc J AScɻAO OAv Ac BfcS^ rAv @Ac AScɻOS @US ; @T @q @AaUS - ca AXf emH PA @ Aw J TS U, s AS, U ~ JOAv @Ac c wU | BfcSS^ AcK cXoc @ZSq TS S s s cU a | sTS J AcK ~B c^ AUZ AUZR @ZS TS AS s a, TAS ~oAS@ ceU @Ac J mS s a j@R @ZS gc SAS cXoc | ޡT emH rBS dH @Ac@ mS @ A Aw ~S@ @Ac @T U cXoc@, cf^S @AcR @T U, A@ا BfcSS^ @Ac ASrAvq qU - cɻAo@ |

@AcAU BS nTR ˻@F Z s | T emH AaU A@ا cf emHAU @ cɰ wa R ɩ R r@بS | T emH T @Ac AaU cSU S, cf emHAU q mS ASa AZ | T emH cXoc j@BS @Ac @Ac BS @AcAU @r AA@ @UnT@ TSSAS, ASB a^T ABAaUS ; AXf emH q cFcm cU AUS - gkAT@ AUZUS, j@q @Ac AcAg^ @AcR OS c @r AZ ~S AcSFm @ AUT |

AcS UQ @ s cSSR ; Zf T emH fW-D@ A UZ AaU, cf emHAU m-q@ ~wTS Wva | T emH cU emHAU AcUj ^A̩ a, BfcSS^ TcAo AcU cSSq ZAaUS | cU cUU r ca T @U-O ~ɰ ިAK@q cI, AcUj s FTݩ ~a cUj Sq ; cXoc ASBR, s ~Jo ~U ~Ao@j "~Jo mofS ^S" AcUq AUZaS, cU S |

AXf emH gkAT@ AUZUS, jq SS emH c AcS @ U ; aBS SS @Ac s US, jce @S @S ިS @Ac - A sJ ~S@ UZ cAa - J OS SS @ AScɻOS @UT | jq aBS SS @Ac US ~dH ATn, AcT TZoF, wU gMAT@, T c, U@S gOs R ~Ac^ | jJ ToF j@Tn wU gMAT@ aɦ ~ @Uq @Ac An@ ިS UZ@, wU gMAT@ @Ac AUZ ~̯ @aS Tnq w ca (1955) @ | jJ ToF @ @AcZFA mf a @ c AS, A@ا ~T TS Z c, jq w^ cXoc j@@U Av rF oS @c O @aS | j@A@ jq e@US sTS ~oAS@ ceU @Ac AO@UfS OAv ~T AO @A Aa, ~SFA@, cqAv sZS cha q AcrK TAvR j@Av Acrm aAc MJa c O @a gcf@U i@ @a | q jTS ~S@ UZ AAS AScɻOS @aS sJ @ @Aci@ ~ TS ZSAS | ~S@ @H @ , q @Ac me @Ac UZ a A S - sq gU AUZS, Av OAv @Ac AUZ @ش ~ ~T S S ! A@ا jq cq TS @ɴ@ @ɴ@R mS AaS cXoc, cqAv T@UfS H cB Zc BSFq c |

pf emH BfcSS^ Av SS @Ac sw @ U - co jce ~AT c | BS SS @AcR jq emH ~^g US, T^@بT ~OsOMof R ~U@̵S r | T^@بT ~S@AS o AUZaS, J T @Ac @Ac- cAAaU ~ArS 1351 (vc-~vc 1944)eZF, ~ɻl S ca ~w | jq pf emH cc T AAS ~oAS@ @Ac Bw AA @Ac, c UZS Zc @T | ~ ~U@̵S cR dH, J UZR @Ac- T c ~S@ , MK 1359 (Ac-BSf 1952-53) eZF ; c ~U@̵S T cq sMcScɴU cA wa @@ ca U, T^@بT T cq jZS @Ar AS | j@BS UZ@ mfgc @AcZFA ~Ao@f cS A@S j@Av TS U J @Ac cq cAa A@S, @Av cAa | A@ا AASAo @Ac Ac AScɻOS BSF cXoc c J TSSf @Ac cq @r BSF ~Q @S S |

O˻ emH @S SS @Ac OS sw U S, A@ا @@BS @Ac eZF cɦS U |

ޡT emH Z Aha, j@خ r BS @Ac s aS | c:nT ~S J US ^K@بT WK (1920-1985), rl@بT TZoF (B^ 1931), r WK (B^ 1932), ~U@ @ (B^ 1932), rA OoF (1933-1995), SfU woF (B^ 1934), AcS TBT (1934-2007), ް (1936-2007), BFAT (B^ 1936), Hc^ r (B^ 1937) | jJ ToF ^K@بT WK @Ac @ZS @Ac An@ @Ar AS, J @AcZFAR Sq, @Ac @S cqR Sq | J g i@R cq BSS S J @AcOOɻ @, @ش @ش c B J @ ~TSF FAAU @ TS ~S S | j@BS WvSOn j@Av-Av ~TSF @Ac AUZ iaS, A@ا AAS AF AF @Acsrf SS ; ~c jTS s AAS ~ AUZUS S - ~SF @T cFp ަUS, c OU @cFUQfq a wUS J@ - A@ا UR, c ɰ@ AsAS J Q mgAc@ c jTS UZ@R q AcU j@-~oAv OS e@US @ Z - J ASBm @Ac cq S @UR, q j@Av-~oAv gU @Ac@ J e@US Bw A mAL j@Av sw PA @ R | @H AAS ~oAS@ @Ac e@US @aS S, ~oAS@ @Ac e@US @aS ; @Acq J AccOF, q @AcAv AsAS BS@ AAS ~ AUZaS A@S, AUZ @U @ AUZaS, jc J A@a j s S | jZS e@AU ^K@بT WK OSAv i @U OT@ i , j@Av ~erTn Xop @A : "j@Tn Tq pAcf wɦ@ qAɮ BS", jq AS cpXo AAaU IɴIޮ a Odv BAU | ^F-~^@ @ذAOl OdvR TrU | f^B A A mH cpQ | A cpQ j@ j@Av l, ~S AST ɮS | A ިy THf c A@ ? Mg YAc, TZrf Sc ?

@Ac ~@ UZ S, vS wF UZ, A@ا j@ @Ac ~@ cU AS Zc cAr ArT @ S :

"j@Tn Tq pAcf wɦ@ qAɮ BS",
jq AS cpXo AAaU IɴIޮ
a Odv BAU | ^F-~^@
@ذAOl OdvR TrU | f^B A A
mH cpQ | A cpQ j@ j@Av l,
~S AST ɮS | A ިy THf c A@ ?
Mg YAc, TZrf Sc ?
~ ~SF STAU ~T Zcq AAO - sw ceU @Ac qA F@Av STq ASBm g gm | jJ ToF j@Tn BFAT Zc cAr UZSAS, A@ا BFAT , J OS sJ AAO J @Uq ~T j@T cS s, s @S cA@aq J ~EOs Ag mQ ZS, A@ا @Svq TS A @S S, @Svq Uw @S S | O oU U AS ~Acgk AaUS AAS, A@ا U A rK s^ AAS A @TS aɦ ~ A@aq @US S | c, jq -UqS @AcAv sJ @UT A cAAaU J @AcLrA ^ @ ~c :
Ao@, BFA, Ao@

jq pAcf ~a aANcr ca
    jZS WvU S c @S AcmH ?
@AcAv @a Sq, mpA @ Xo @UT - ~r @A ~AcO @AAS |

jq cq cc @Ac An@ @ Uv Ai@ ha A@S, BAS S - @H j@Av F UQHf, @Ac @Ac @Ar R jq w^ e@AU R @S FQ @ػ Sq | dH @Ac ToF ~S@ @Acq ASAT @Ac @Ar a, A@ا J @U OSq s jq e@US mS a S | ~c j \vvR AF - @Ac @ZS @Ac cAS, ~O jq e@US mS aS, jTS @Ac ^K@بT WK aɦR j@BS ~aS - AAS AcS TBT |

~B ^ ca o jq cqAv ~oAS@ ceU @Ac AwrS JA ~a | cq B^AA US @c RB Sq ~T, SU, j-cq ~or@ kA lc @U A@aTn ~Arݩ S | ~T s ceU ~oAS@ @Ac O c r A@ S ca @AS, ~T jq @Ac T TAw@ mɰ AaUT jq cq @ | jZSq T BSUT s @بT oTn cUTS a@ SS, OAncS ~oAS@ @Ac - jce ~^r Z@ب R Z@- ("U ArAr gCU cU") ~cS T T Ri cAU@ ~o~o ~cpAq AS:rK s S, j mcp a^ J@ A A OJq ~oAS@ cCAUBfcS wgf̩T QةAO ̽ mpA |

jZSq T j@ AaUT q @AcAU, ~oAS@ة qA s ~U@cA@ T fFTS ~a : Wɮ, S ASBS ɩ, ~v ca ~w j@AS ; ST, vAZ, ssA ; ewA, OS F@, AOAS ; SqU, AO\@ @U, ɩ ASv Sv ; v-ieA, nA, WɦۮR ; SfAUT@, crf, j@Av T, cok, AScɻOAS@, rA^AS@ةS aAv, @Ac Z | j cq sA c:A^@U @a S ީT, U SS @Ac SS cq @ ewpf jqc @Ac, s TAw@ة ToF A ceU @Ac ~oAS@ة oH j@Av ASZJ ޻H T AAU , ^S ~S@AU AS ~F^ ~ScrF@gc ~cFAݩ s |

jce ~B@ s dH i@ jq cq Tc ZUcS AAS ~T DKɻgBS ; j cq sZS T ~T AaU ޡr ca wa, ~S@ cU wa ceU @Ac Acr | jq @Ac @Uq ~B @cFTw BUgF, U ceU @Ac@SS cr jq cq J AT@ TSAOn T @B @c | j cq ަ Aw TBfcS FscAS@ J TS sZS U U i @c, ZS AAS sS ~T @ TS @S - ~T s ޡr ca ~w, jq cq @, jq F cAAaUT |


esBS


~oAS@ ceU @Ac cXoc c BfAc@U @Ar JOAv emH @Ac R @Ac AH | @Ac ST kAOn nT ~Ssf BS | jq AH @ cXoc dAO j@v ~^B R s |
1T e
(1954)
2 e
(1956)
3 e
(1959)
4˻e
(1963)
5T e
(1973)
@Ac ST
@Ac eZF
cf^S1616171716
T OMof22222
~cSf^S i@ب11111
sf^TS cwOf 11111
F^S 33333
@بT 55555
sf^S S 32222
TAUU TBT 12244
of@بT OMof 11111
SBdU qUT 65533
BfcSS^ r 1015171919
of^S 77788
THfr Wv@ 11111
~AT Oncf 1316161616
BfT AS 11111
TS Acrf 44444
~AO^F@بT S 33333
T^ ATn 6661010
~^r 55555
TO^ cwOf22222
oSf cf 11111
AcTUɰ TZoF 11111
TݨS @Ac 12222
~AB 88888
SfUO^ @ 11111
cXoc c 1015151514
ASAr@^ 22222
AcG 78888
gOs 45555
~dH ATn -1111
~r@AcB 33333
AcTUO^ WK22222
BFAA^S PTn 21111
OU@بT OoF 21111
AcT TZoF -1111
ASr ɮ 22222
TpHU@A^ 12222
T S 913131313
Acr c^FoF 11111
@TQfɰ OoF 42222
A@Hr S 22222
ɰ ATn 11111
wU gMAT@ -1111
THf^ 22222
cHf 11111
gK TZoF 55577
cf^ OoF 11111
TUOH OoF 21111
~dH@بT @ 22224
T^@بT ~OsOMof --111
Sr 33334
Sf^S Oncf 11123
T c -1111
@^ gOs 33333
U@S gOs -1111
~Ac^ -1111
rl@بT TZoF ----3
r WK ----3
~U@ @ ----2
~U@̵S r --244
rA OoF ----3
SfU woF ----4
AcS TBT ----1
ް ----2
BFAT ----2
Hc^ r ----2
@Ac eZF 4955575767
@Ac eZF 176196201208239
@Ac R @Ac ~Sɩ 1:3.61:3.61:3.51:3.61:3.6
rAv c Ao@ @Ac ~a sJ
cf^S1616171716
BfcSS^ r 1015171919
~AT Oncf 1316161616
cXoc c 1015151514
T S 913131313
JOAv c Ao@, A@ا r @T @Ac ~a sJ
@بT 55555
SBdU qUT 65533
of^S 77788
T^ ATn 6661010
~^r 55555
~AB 88888
gOs 45555
AcG 78888
gK TZoF 55577




cɮ 41; ~wmv, 2008

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