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[ j@ ]


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ШAUA, cf^-OScUf R @Ac cf^S Acg UT Ai@q, A@ا cXoc c^ oHv SS SSL wU@oJo AU wU | cXoc A@ @Ac, SA@ w\@, SA@ cA^@, SA@ jc aɦR ~ ~SF A@a ? ~ɮU A@ AAS ?

jq A@ AAS ABɮq ~T cXoc ^S | ~BR OUa | q ZAS@ oAccHf jq ASc^ |


[ q ]


@Ac cXoc c hO ~L@r c^f c^S @Ac ToFT | jAv J T @Ac S, ަUq cI s j ~cw sq m:mk @, j aS a ~^ A@aAS ~SrfUS | cU@-A@r cݮ @q @Ac cXoc@ vSa, aS O, UZ TR d a sS ~coA̩ gcq | A@ا jq T sS ASB wU ZJB R, cU T A@a j@v cU |

of-of, ~TTAn@ UqS UqS, ATUav, OUS j@v gA, cA jU jU sc@ BcScA^, j@ rg cAr ~LWKH | ... rK AAv @wB AUZq ~T ~SgkA U -- jv Ai@, jv a, jv AF | TS, jv cSS S, ~RB @بO@RB S, S cf^S c F^ cBTBAS w -- jZS ~T A@a cU AaU, jq T ~AT ASB wU @ cU UT | ... ~T cݮ ZS A ~i OUa ; ~T aUcU jZSq TA | [1]

s@S @Ac BfcS jq wU ZJB R j@ sw^ WvS | cXoc PrrcR ~cS ATAUaS, ݩ jq @Ac BfcF BSFq | avcU @ ccU JMaS s An, o o SS ޮw R rT A, c cF, Acg̩ R cFF AcAST BfcS s m H, j@ qm jq @Ac | (j@v @ػ @q aUcU @ ccU AUZUT S, @H ~B@U TcU sw, aUcU gfKH Amv rN |) cɮS cQTI @J T QبAo sMcS, / T cS mبvS ~w ~of.. c Acoɩ, BS S AT @f ~ Aɮ ~T/ ~Tp | / S Ac ~Aa @pATWS w, / wS ~^ TT AS^ o pG / y ~a c |... c AT T Aa @TS, ~^@ ~TAn-T, / ~AT wAAa T, ATUq mo TT | [2] -- qFA an j@A@ sTS ɩFA@ TAS AO^S | sMcSs^H s BUAa jce BAUAa, c TZn sS @Ac jZS | c jq s^H ~AgK@ R ~AgWɩ cUa ~B@ BfcS, sA MU F ZU v s B^ R BS, @a jq cɩ ~ ݩ ~S@ ~wq, ݩ cIcR ~w | q ~rK ~ @بAvU, er ~ WS, Acm ~ BAvU | cf^S jq c @Ac sZS T ~@rf ~US, ~ jce ~AcrɮF, rAr cXoc c^f c^S, j@c W R W Ag ; ~S@vq @a |

@U@ɩ @ vSsw TɰB AO\@ il AO@AOA@ Ri, U-UqS ~A AS@v, T^U | sZS ZAaUT, ZSR AO\@ @U AAS, jce sZS ަUT ~ prF Z sw AS | r@U Av AcOF Ac^@ j@q Z vS jS sZSq gcAa, AO\@ @U aJ wa | @f gU ~T UwU ~B jq @UcU / @TS @ cAU | sS j@c ~vM TZ @, ݩ Z Zq ~, ~mkv cU Ri | ~ ASTU ~@r, ks cSF, m AU BU, :f BA, "T" OZ @زTS @ة TpF, @ة B^ AO@UfS S-cU-cHf | jZS oq TSK ~ @pA, ~, ~wo, ~r@ | jq @Ac Sq @S o, sTS BA r AOU ~wTS, c AO\@ BU -̽-@pAT ; oq AUA@FU @cFR s ~oAS@ TH ZaS cXoc |

cK cFC بA | cpA rK, ~@r ASc@ ; / hOA@ة @ةS rS wU cFC @ | T anq cr B̰ WKH, cf^-o sw, wS rcHo Aa I, / @S w ATa Bwc R qFA c ~U@cK | H AS^ H @Ac ZaS j@ ~Xg ~SK, TШ@ jZS sS T@U ~ TpAcf Fɩ@ | R @B @̒ s c AS OUAaU gF oB @R ~ ~S@ TkU@ m cFC cJO @, BAU Z cQ| cJO cA | AcS AcoS sTS WpAH, fcAcA ~rUR @ s THAc@ U R ; jq oS H AS^ AScAo A TH TAT@ ~mf@ @ OU | ToFn dXoX ~T ~T rsFrf, / mNo pAcf o rS s j@@f, lf / j@Av ~^ ; ASwkb T^ rK r@ -- / AS: cFC @i lA̩ - n@, n@, n@ | [3]

ceUɮAF ˻@ jUAB eZF cAr S | Acv cFAL H UZ a A@a @Ac, sTS SBdU Ac, A@ا vASS qS TTAT-j T, ~ɩ: oH TSK TpF@R @cF TfS @ U AS TS | @S j@ Tp A j@ BU cFAnT | A rf~r@ ATn ~LPBcAS@ ~AU OAU BSUT jq @Ac H cXoc ~F^ AAO j@ c^Ψ-Lf TpF | Tp@ jZS BS sw S, @Ac ToF @S AS AcrKH J@ OSS OR Sq, Sq r@ XU cFS | ~ Sq mpA ~TL ~Tf R ~˻fS ~f@ | cFA cp @ j@Av ASy^ ATAU wU Acr TI, jq Arc F@ @Ac ZaS, cF ~Ar | AsAS Sq, c AaUS ; J @, @ QAH@, ~T aJ s | m @Ac, ިvq Xop @A --

gAUc S -- j c mAo r / BfcS @ S QT | q ATF ~f@ @ | / T OT TA, QAH@, ~@A\ީ / cF @ | T TZrf-T ATU@, ATU@ / pH-n, ǩ, BU-mU, ~@r SfU | / o jq @v@ب Y ASgp ~U / BU AZ jq n -- AT AaU, c AT AaU | [4]

@Ac cXoc cFA Acv, @@Av AQ XopA J@ OS s S | @Ac cFvq jTS, @ cIS O cp | cFAAcrK cBc, S cBc S | c j@ cU OU, TTA@ @ cXoc PrUf m^ | J @Ac Sq of^S ~Xg, ~oH (jce ~crFq ZvTv) gK AchaH, Sq BfcSS^ ASwkb, ASdH Acr, TSc R TpFco, Sq AcG AcAco (AcrK cf^S) ̮S | Sq ~oAS@L @S hO WKH, @S wUg Ac | sS ~F^ ~S, ~cUfU ~f@ A, cf^S ~ɮTSf AmA@ mf@ R rXo @, ASB Jva cXoc @Ac | ~w AF@ A@ @, A@ا c@T @UA A @ cXoc AUZaS, j@^ ASB TS | J @cF w ~S^, oq gC ~mUS S |


[ AS ]


cXoc j@Av avw\ \UZ ~wq @Aa | jc J Av SF ~UOS @c | j@Av gɩ fQ @q ި JA c^ ASS R s, A@ا AF Qn j AUA Tkb۩ | AcFo kBɰ SDU J ScU cp cUAaUS, I said earlier that everything of value about me is in my books. I will go further now. I will say I am the sum of my books. Each book, intuitively sensed and, in the case of fiction, intuitively worked out, stands on what has gone before, and grows out of it. [5] UZ@ c cqq TS @A J ASB Osɻ, q qhaT Av cq U jS @S ARA Sf R AO S | jZS AA jce ɩ-g-cpA ~T ASB gU-Uw C | q ASq AUZAa | @S Tq j ABSAvAvg mATS S, TS A@a R S |

AA cpl SFɮ, A@ا cpl @FSgɮ S | AQة sAR jTS cTS s qA ~S@ @Hq ~a | BT-Ri AXf T-sXo, BSf ~wɮS g @Aީ TSw, cf^S ArZ BU^, @زTS, jce ~crK AScAީ, TFc m cJ A@a sc@, jce mɩf -- BScc @HfAS@ | mɩf B^ @ X, TZF jq T@ AWq c ia w\ | w\ TS A@a S | Prrc, P@r, sMcS aJ OUa BfcS mɩf, cc, AA, ɰ s-s ASB cp rAr OUaS | T ~wq ɩ | mɩf SAAvAgAv ~m ~m Ac@Ar , @pA, H, ިdK A | ~ JOv oH T Tq, OAU ~AgWɩ, AAO ~AgcFA | Sq @S U @بTAcU wSwS ~Agک, c AcKT ~rK | ~B@ sw c ަ ަ q A Tkq TS a, TS A@a Wva S @S, @S WAH j mɩf@ -TS SA-A A@ S, @S wgf ~FAr ~O dH @A A@a | A@aq S | cf TBT mɩf@ O, jce wb AA LR oq mɩf AA ToFT AH˻S BS | S@O Aw mɩf Ac wA i jce J A AST^H-Q @ s | FS ArAQة, rfAU, ST, ZAS@ ASAcR ; mɩf Y ~SwS qeAB R ceU @cF J@ c | rK s^ mɩf@ q |

c UZ@ c UZ ToFq ~LPBcAS@ ɰS @; qeB ̮-AAF@ BT @ BT cUAaUS, j@Tn j@BS@ ASq UZ s, U ASB@ | cf^S TpF AS s mrf cHS AA-j ~a, cXoc-j FQ UANoq ASsɮ | ~T @AcgcS-j q rkSF, A̽ ASAv @ AUZaS :

ަ^ cU MAc jFS : @B U A @Uq ~B m -- rTU A@U-cFAmv, ~UZ\U ZfmvS ^Fɮf, f cS, PwA@ cS, BSoH ; TS lc, @S ATAaU - A@ا ATAaU S, U@ ava jUTU, AwAcA@, sS g^, @ sc A@ @c Ar ha S | .... TS ~AB Oncf@, co AA Z wU J , AcmvU vU c -BS S @UT -r rA ~c gT -- @S il AO^S O cU cU c S, ZSR ~AT ~F\@U cS ~gFm qAS -- A@ا co qBSFq, jq ASAv@ ~T @S AcrK ~OH X AOA @ BSF | [6]
AA ~S ~oAS@ @Ac, oc R AS m-Zm OU AS A@g^ j@U mJ TFS @AaUS | ~ cɮj mɩf r c S ca TAv, ~STA S ASq Zc @wB mrU jArS ASU mɩf ɩ @, " OZ S UwU @ ASO, ~ q OZ @ vv @ ަ UwU @U-@-aS @wBv , aZS @JO-@AU Ta Ta A | "[7] AA sS cf^S H ~ FQ @ U, ~ @a, ~ cF |

jTS cpl WvS AQ sTS, TAS TTAU ~vM ~SR AA TS@ aJ s c c | mɩf-FS Ac lc @U@q AU A s, ASB ~r-~cm ASAcrK | c AcA@ ~S^SS s TAT ~a, s ~T cTS AZ^ S @ , QAH@ BSF UR ; "... ~ ASAZU il TS U @ZS @ i@ @f ... @S g Sq, @S :Z Sq, c , c ~a |..." [8] Prrc Aީp FS TT gq ASAZU, e | FS empA-rfUS @ ASAZU ~S@ k, c H R AH ASAZU@R cFBfcS cqv AZ | j@ U@ |

gK cFc mha, cUfU R oH | ScBɩ@ mɩf TS gc, s ݩ j@Av AcrK c ~T @U q cf^S ~AgWɩ, cIS @@Av ~EOs U c@F | ... ScBɩ@ؒ ZU cU, jZS RZS OZ cAU jUTU ɩ R\vU @@c | il ~SF @ gU Aw ަ UwU @Ac | j@Av j@Av, rA^ STU TS | sc w\ j-@AS o AaU, ~EOs wUAT j sS j@ ~ ~EOs rA^, I ~^@ ~ ~F AcF @ cA sS OU jU jTS j@ r sZS c ~U, c gU, c ^ | ... [9] FS ASS qFcAo mɩf TJɮ R vUmv mɰ-wH @AaU |

AA ~@ ~Acy, eU PrUf | @ jZS gKF ATU ATr j@@, @S sAAO AR ~Uɰ @ Sq | ަ sTS U, cIR TSq | c @@S Acg sS cq j@TAn@, AcAg^ OAn B AcAg^ ASR j@q mwT, j@q hOH @ cU OUa | cf^S cXoc sAS بvU @TU cqAv cUS, ަ ަ Zv@ UwO T gK | ~S@ mSq c@F HUf ~F^ qeAB | TS TS gcAaUT, jZS@ sc@scf AFq A@ jTS BT @ gKq @cɫ @ @ ! ~^ ~T ~Agک ~AT jv UQF @A AS | @cɫ j @T @pAnT bev ̮g @SS Tm ABASKv F@ wf @ | [10] qeAB c@FwiS rpU @ AA ~S@vq T, jce F@ Aw R T gfKH cF ZJB qAS, c eU o sS cAr U cUq ZAS@ AcgA^@ | cqAv j@c rK ~Sha UZ j@ ~AAO @UT, JA, @T T AcgB@ eOFrS A @ oq A@a Z, AQ, rN cHUf, @ZSR WvS, @ZSR AO^, @ZSR oq rN | sS @S Bݮf stream of consciousness Bɩf ASfQ OUAhaUS cXoc jq p˨U SF ^ j |

~ AA jq PWF ZAS@ AcOAU @ ~T | Zc Uc cq AO@Uq ~T @a gT UR, mAm S | ~crFq cFAnT ~a, sTS w | c AA fT c fTJfS AS 328 p cS sS ~S@vq cAr, cqAv eA jq cr cF s | c jq WvA ިިAq kH a ~T ~UOF cqAv | AA ~ TI q r@ cFcoS, jce q cqAv cXoc UZ@ BfcS A^@ AHA OS | rZS@ pR @T @Uc, A@^ ccF WSL R ~FSAUA wS USfS |

sc ocA@ gc pA@s ASAB @aS BfcS j@ ^ @ ~@ s^, J ~S@ pA cAF@ ~ݩS j@ ~Xg AccS Z s | ~S@ Bw, ~S@ rN, ~S@ cH @ j, ~\ A̮ ~r TU ; hOH @ ~AgcFAq Ri c | cf^S ɩAmSf T @cF ~SwU l, ASI mg, c^ jce ~ ~S@ @Ac @kU aA O i Ai@@ ~AA̽ gc R gK T T ~ɦ @ ; j@q @Ac nA^U @a j UZS, a, TAccAB A@a an, T AS ks / r @AaU / SkS ~Acgc -- / @ AT | / TUAS | s @ @R ~f, @ o s sS jq ~SSF c@esT | TS AcigSjR AT@ pA cpl T @FSg ~J@ O mwT wSwS ~A, sS ZJB OUaS ~eZF rN ~HF ASB AAXo, ~F ɦS -~ eWɩ ~S aha rɩ TSR | A@ا rK c jq @ quartet, quintet gpA m\ cF T @r @aS ~ FɩS | AA @ ɩ g cpAĒ TI s Osɻ, ZSR ݩ jq j@q TBS @B @AaU cXoc UZ@ ; q ~SSF economy of form J ~ jAaU, s c @ Acv MJa |

ɩ g cpA cF c@ ~UAO A@Av AS ~ ~U@ BS AZ S | Ar\ޮpA@ ASAKXo @ @H-~@H AS OO ASAKXo@fq ~s mf@pA BSS | AO@U jJ AaUS, @cSR ; sAR Acq SS @ TS , j sw q B^ ASa ~AB / TA^ ja g AB | ~r @, ~B@ qxvSvj sw A @io O Bc@Fq ATU, sAR TS O ZTA Sq | A c @ ɦ BwS cFS ceU cqR ~^BU AcBTS, o SR ~Q | c j@v TB @ cU s | cXocq @S OS AaUT, J T A@ j ~ R jce ~ ~S@ SF @S aS @A J @a Sq, UU-cB S @T @S ިHFmS rmTq c @A l@ AaU, ~A ~AgsA | ZS AB A mQ @AS A@U UZ@@ cUS s ASB BSF j@ @A AAS cJAO ZaS, cA Aw A ަcS |

ɩ g cpA An@H T w\ | AX@H Tv c @ mmF R Aco UR, AS w\ @S s S | jq AA^Uv A^ @ @UB j@ c^Ψ AUwSFU H AS @ASf AUZAaUS j@c (Ai@ TS Sq, c a@v co O@ػAH@ c ޡ@AH@ AaU); A@ا @UB-TFwABS ɰ@f Kl S@O @, ~AA̽ ~A @H | Rq ɰS ɩ g cpA ~S@ ZJB aS, c TS i@ Tnq mf@ @cS, ~A jZS T R rK @S @q S |

ɩ g cpA ASAv TkU OAn, TUf, B^ R SSe | ~crF ~HR ja ~SO-@SO, c Sɩq Ar»@ BS | WvSc Sq cUUq OU, @UR wA ~F^ r | w\ wA T A̮ ~\, A@ا T@ jZS c c jAw, AAa, AT A PA @ a sS @UOFk @S cc | q@UAB@U SgU cU s oH AwAH @, A@a ɰS ~a jq SF, c ASa@ q ~a cUU @T cU | jAv j@Av SFɮR S ݩ, qeAB s@ SgU cU ~S@v q @T | (SgU ceU cw\ ss S ~T T, @H w\ ~ SF ̩TF oq PWF S |) TSmAL@ AcrKH jZS TZF UR vq cv S, ~@Am@ @cFTݩ il aJ s | @Ac R wF@ cXoc ATU, ATr waS j@@ Bw, ~T TSS R TT U Uw sS j@q | ɩ g cpA jTSq j@ cq, s AS ~F@AT@ ~UOS @ s S, @ش q ~oFoS @ UUR TZFq cp c | j cq ASB ަc jce gcc ; ަ ަ TUf, S B^ S SSe @ S @ ASB ATU sS R scq, jTSq ~oH TA^S OAnS ^ a | eA@ ɩFA@ة ް ~ɦU U@S ~S@ TSAc jZS i ja ~SSF oH, s ~T AOS A, cI A, A@ا oHF mf@ @ @بAi q |

A ~T j@ c^Ψ J Scb Lf@ ɩ g cpA ަ AAaUS | ɲF ~dH K j cq TS slq A@S AS @ػ i , c c^ΨAv AaUS AUcU, TZ cvq, TS-HR ݩ | AS j@ @ BSUS s cqAv J mf ~F^ gU Uwa, jce SSe mTf cr ATU aS | ɰprF @v hOH T Awv Uqv BUS Acg TZv b@ AaU c^Ψ, q cFB S AUA@U cI ~wq ~AT cU UUT, R A@ ASB@ ASAZUr-ASAZUr Uw SA@ ? ~B^q @v cU UAaUT, c^Ψ AcKT ZR cr ~S U |

W cq ~ ɩ g cpA ToF ATU TU r S | W cq sTS nT^ ~L@ Ag A jAw OUa, ɩ g cpAR ިvq T ިdK BcSf | oS OAn @@Av ASB ~f-gAcKF, ~r-ASr, Wɩ-AWɩ ~@v U oa i@ TS, @S gKF@ j@q wA^ wJ AhaS S | @Bv s ަa | ~crF B^ AO ɩ g cpA TZF AAU, ɮA e@\-erK ~T Ql ~\q | jce W cq T @S Acv @FSg cFAw cS AcUfS c sw jZS Sq | AXf AcrsXo-cf SwA@ TB AOn ɩ g cpA ~J@ a ~oH cmc, A@ا av av TSK av av ~AmL | mrf, c^TɩT, , Sq jTS A@aq, s ASTK BSF TSK@ vS AS Acv ToF U cFABfcS@ ha @ | rK Sq @S ~S s AcTU T TUf@ ި sw AU, ASAZUr@ wgf n Ac^ ToF IJ cXo @U | ^f ASyTH TR @S WvS jZS WvU S, Qب BfcS Qبq ~a, ~J@ cJO @U, ~FATc T | TI TIq ݩ ~TF@ R sc QAH@ BSF, TS c c Ai@, c gU, c ~U | sTS j@ ^F OAU@, SSe-TUf@ AS wU ~U BU ~S, Acg U BSq, cUU, ~EOs ! ~EOs ! ~ B, U, TI-TI AxvTxvU -- A@ا il j@-j@v-Iv @S JO i s | [11] q JOR ASTK, BS BSq, cR @JA s | ~c ~coA̩ FcS, er, v, Acw, PcfF OcAU |

ɩ g cpA rK g | "Ri SSer, A@ FZ ~B@ jq I@I@ ASAv A@ T jq SS BfcS@ ~gF˻S BSR |" [12] @TS @U ? B @ Sc ~dHɰ... j ~AB cHf, ~F AS --- / ~ r, ~w er ? ݩ S | jq g BfcS cTS f@ | F r Tmv w ~S | cFABfcS aZ s , wUR cJO @ c, "... j@v ɩ @v wUR cJO @ TSK, j@v بب S UR cJO @ ----...|"[13] cXoc rK @US ɩ g cpA jTSq cFS, sZS ~U BUU S, ~c ASgUR S, BU-Sg TI UTS q qU | sTS @ c oH BfcS | ~c ɩ c, cpAR ~ɮc g | @UR c ݩ, sAS ks cJO @ | ksR rK c j@AS |

jq rK ~@Av cq @ j ; Av ~c ~oS rA@ mr cr ިU a | OZ cAU | @Ac An@ ~Kb 1387 eZF cf^-OScUf pf Z TUOS cXoc c, OZ cAU AcK AUZaS, ".... A@ا "OZ cAU" c^ j@Av ~A BSq , cqAv TA ~A cU | AF cU, rK ɩAv Acrɮq O S s jZSq, jq Bɦ-AU HfS ̬q j fc ZFSAv rK ..... "| [14] ~ TS TZ TSf cf^S, 28r BS, 1940 U UZS cXoc@ AOAi, T @Ac OZ cAU TUOS rK ~er s T^cF Aa Zc ZAr Aa | OZ cAU cc ~SA@U @q TAv AS ~AT TS TS ~S @ jAa, AS^ X AEO R AO | [15] ɩ g cpA rK q ݩ cXoc c McUF A @, @بi U T ASTT ɰ@ AS jaS, s c TS, c BS ~U T Ay @ | Sq @S TFɦT TAU@ة, gcAXo ~BAc S c "Bɦ-AU HfS ̬" | ~a AST@ cmc |

ɩ g cpA cXoc UZS J UZ@ BfcS ^ | s fT AS jce s ~A@ AAS AUZaS j cq, Ag sTS ~a j@ ~SSF jATxvrS TSq ~بS A@ة | jq ASB@ gC , ASB AF@fA fTS@ ~R jAw AS sc , ~BS | UNoA AAF@ ~S@q jq Am AS OS S, qTB R cB S g | cXoc UZ@ BfcS ASAZ ɩ g cpA vqATe ~T@ ~S@vq TS @A Aa cf^S UFcvA w\ @ | J ~Ar ca B^AS @a@Aa UZ, rK avw\AU ~SFT | j w\ S ަU cf^S@ BS ~S@vq cA@ @ s ; jce AAS ~oAS@ @ةv R A@S q @ػR ZAS@ Ar TU |


[ O ]


cXoc c^f qFcAo ~UOS cc j aS cf^S | v mgAc@, cf^S cCAU, AcrK j@Av sw cCAU qAɮ-@pA-@\S B AaUS R @cS | c cXoc cf^S @ػ cr ~SSF ; jce AO Ag cXoc @pF ^SR ASA ~a |

-PAc@ sw T @im cf^S ASBq, j @ cXoc cUaS ~@v | ~oAS@ ceU @cF ~SFT ArA cXoc AUZaS, ... The progenitors of this poetry had the dubious luck of being born Rabindranath's contemporaries: dubious, for the incalculable advantage of being alive and young when Rabindranath was alive and gloriously ageing also brought in its train certain serious and rather peculiar problems. I do not know that any single poet in history so completely permeated the language and the literature of his country and his time as Rabindranath in his later years. Inevitably and rightly, young poets were steeped in him; but what was neither inevitable nor right was that many, instead of journeying with him and in him, were lead to use him as an anchor. For these, it was impossible not to imitate Rabindranath, and it was impossible to imitate Rabindranath. [16]

cXoc cf^S @ػ c@MAH@ | j@ A@ J AaUS wb cFAw m-rXo c^S ~cXo | Z Ql a ~S@c, AOAinR sw AaU ASAT | q @ػ ZAS cXoc Z waS c UZ | ~T s cf^S@ AZAS, ~ s ZcS S, @a cXoc c Aa r sTSq j@ ~TSF AA@ AUU, TAS ~rK ~@ | jq cq o cf^S SS, J Or Ac@fH s ~EOs cɩcH, R i ja ~kc @AcF@ة | c Aa r j@ ksm cHS, ZS ~mw B cH ATU wa c K R c ToF |

cFAw esw cqR cf^S R cXoc s AaUS pA AO^S ~Lfݩ | j@q gK, j@q @pA AAF@ J, A@ا q B^, q sw | cCAU @a, Acr @a cf^S@ qxvv @ cXoc ~cS AcިU | cf^-B^rcK c r cXoc cp @aS ~TA^ , q e@US Tagore : Portrait of A Poet gpA cq |

R A@ ~SF @R Ai@ TS Sq, j@v av-TS AF-AUS ~T@ j@BS cUUS, ~AS s UZS cI ~T @S @ S, cr gUR Uw | A@ا Accc UZ TTШ A@aq cI A S -- A@ s AAS UZS AASq BSS | gU@Av gcAaUS J jq @ S ASB@ ~e@p TS @ ~AT Zc ZAr c | ~AT AUT, Accc UZ T cIc @ S | AAS T BSF UZS S | ~T T s w^@ BSF Accc UZS, T T s i@ BSF ~AT AUAZ | [17]

rlO^ jq T^cF ToF cf^S UZ c^ j@v c F ~F^ mgc cF ~a | oH i@ @a cf^S@ H @BAv cXoc BfcS o @aS T AS |


cc@ UZ cf^S AOAi ~er


cf^S R cXoc @ػ wgf AO R s J ncUf ToF | cf^S J ~Ar ca BfcS cFAw AOAi AUZaS ~B, jce ~S@ Qnq AUq J r AF ~o | Acrg̩f @Ar AOAin : Kɦr Z cf^S R J ~SB @Ac Ag nU e@US | jq Z Amϩ BfcSS^, of^S, cXoc, AcG, , T | F@ cf^S @@S o m^, cf^S@ F@ AOAi PrUfR AcAg^ | BfcSS^ j@ AOAi d @aS, ~AS ~oAS@ pAcf Ncr @Ac R TSfKf | ~AS TTSc | [18] of^S coS rq AUZS, "rfOH@TUK"; 24 vc 1940 U j@ AOAi AUZaS, .. cUF T ~S @cF emr ~A, sZS P@r T ~ca ~ca cI A ~S mha^ @cF @f ~ATSAK@ @U@MrU AA, sZS ToF sMcS AH cAXo T TS ASq s, o ceU AF S, cCUf Tw Bɩf BfcS mf@p ~mf@p , @ث, Acoɩ j@U ~AS..."| j@q AOAi cf^S F @Ar P@rmpA c^ AUZaS, ...aUcU gkTS^q ~gɮ UT | ... ~S r wF ToFR aUcU US Sq | .. j wF AocoR ~AScsF : j AUZ A@ c ? [19]

~ XopA ~c^ | jq@T ~U gATZ an aA ~a ~SB @Ac c AOAi | TS Z @ jq mA @S ASa@ mc@cp^ S, (TS TSKR cf^-ATU ~\ AaUS S) jTS @ Jq cUaS sJ oS c AaU cf^ɫ SSL ^S R OO | jq AOAiAU ަ ަ ~SB @Ac TS gc j@Av qeAB rN AOA @ s, overawed | ~mTS ksR ZSR J OZ R TS oJAo Aha |

cf^S cXoc@ UZ aAnrAv AOAi wA˩ a jZS, cXoc cf^S@ UZ, SOA\UrAv | cFAw @بrU AcAST ~a j@^ ~^A@ة, ~a @Ac An@ BSF A˻ UZ L-\Ur, ~a cXoc F @Ar OS c^ cf^S T^cF, jce TTA@ SS AcK Ac@ػ AS T ~ɰSS | c^Tɩe wSAv Bɩf f Ac sAw AS cf^S cXoc Ag T-˻@F a, a a J AOAi, "mwS-j @ \UZ @a, c^Tɩe jq c@FAv ~a mwS, -- @Sw @ jce ~ A@a UU SFrSU ewf @A H @a e R AS @ػ UU cp BS @r @ | .... AT ~T@ wU RAS | A@ا q s S AT ~T@ cAI R | .... "[20] ~SF cXoc cF@بU AUZaS cf^S@ a AAS Qبu S, "~TpcB An@Av ~AT ASAT AZS ; U@TZ SUT An@ j@Av Zc cAa s ~AT SA@ j@ cp cUAa ceU AF ~o: BSF cf^Sq f | @v j ɮF@ s j Acɰ @R cp--.. |" [21]

c jqc aAR ~a A@a ~FcmvFv ~UOS, s AF AO^S o s | cf^S jq AOAiAU ~erAcrK @Ac An@ l@UfS eZF c^ ~@R @Ar a | jZS cf^S cXoc ToF cFcoS Sq j@ B^, Sq @ q kH Ag^TZf pA ~A@R | cXoc AUZaS, "~T @a -- F@ ~oAS@ cCAU UZ@ @a -- A@ا AcrK @ ~T @a ~AS c T | ~S @a @ ~AT gK Aa | -gK ~S a^ S | ~Tq NcU, ~QT | l-ɩ mha, AcXo -- ~AT A@ @ WUv @ؒ AU ~T cTU qeAB ArQ A ? A@ا @ػ @c S ; o jq sw wH @Aa ~S@ ~T ~^ wgf̩T oSFcɰ BSc-- ~AS ~T@ gK AaS cU |" [22] ASB gK s j@^q ASB TH @ ~B@ sw AAF@ l̩ @T S, s@S qB Uq wU AS, AS j@cq SS gK cASaS | ZS cXoc jTS ~@v Hmf@ J ~oH @ AOAS | s @cF J @ cJ@ wa ~S@vq, cf^S c^ T AaS OZ rNOS, jce q ZAS@ ~^UfS ~AgTSR, "T @Ac SS PA @ Uw sR -- ~T OU wa @S cAi@S | A@v T HF cFc T U Aa | SS cFc Ac-AS@rf jZS Z AS, TS TS Ug ~ @K OUO, ~r @A TBSf BT ic -- j@U Tm Zɩn cAU @ A | T v AcrK wT cU co hO S, sA O S @ة T U Ag ̩T | Tgf ~gFɮ @ r S | A@ا ~Aީ TkUF@ Acrɮ @ r | Acm @Ac c, s Tgf @ @ AF rgsn @c -- rg c A@S ~T Q cU r |" [23]

24 T, 1941 cf^S cXoc@ s AOAi UZS jTS j@ ~LPBcAS@ ɰS ~a s ~SF @S UZq TU S | "~T s qA X j@^q OAU j@ cc SAa jce cc Ag Ag Zc B T SAa | j @ػ TfTe ~T ASB ~^q ~a sZS ~AT ~ A@a Sq -- @cUTn @Ac ZS ~AT pA@ة ZS ~AT j@@, ~AT T | cA c WvSި X BUcXo Sq | AA@ AЩ ~T q @cF @^ @ vS jS U sZS, ~T v ~F co | j@c sR s@ @Ac-BfcS wɦ@ kOS |"[24] | cf^S ASTT B jJ@aS J mf AccS Z, ZS WvS S, c a J ~AL@ ~SSF | fW AOAi, Zaɦ XopA o s S | i@@ ~So @A ASB Z |

cf^S BfcS jTS @S AFf S AS, sJ ZF Ag A, @ػ Ag A, erK Ag A j@ ~ icS ~ Xo | J ~@rAT Ag ASAZ TS c^Ψ R ݩ B AaU S | A@ا wFv AaUS rfU@, ~ rfU wFv@ | cXoc cf^S jq J@ gv @AaUS oFT, T@Ac BfcS rK jce c@ mHf r@ | jqZSq cf^S-cXoc @ػ j@ ~USf Tn s |

~ɮU ~T TS cf^S R cXoc pABw j@ ~^ASA ATU ~a | ݩ gw gw @ s, expressionists jce evolvers ; mk@ jce Acc@ | @^, SBdU c vASS, jJ T wn | @r XU ha, pAĮZ \U jJ T, ASU WkAH jJ pA OU ZAS@ cp@ | UQHf, @^ ~@U ɩ, SBdU cJO @R ~S@AS mNo mAc, jce vASS AS fW BfcS ~Ao@f | ~ݨ jTS ̩TF LLR jJ UZ Sq TS nT AcSrfU, Sq AS^ cU a | IS T IJA, aA J pArfU OH | ~SFA@ Acc@ c sS ASB gC gC, J gc R gA SSL av A , jce ݩ ~AScs @SvFA@rSR | J j@ ToF ~S@ A^cr, l @ TS J OUS TSf T, c rZ ި jce c o A̩ | cf^S R cXoc BSq evolver | gfKH TSAScr J @@Av cq UUq J cI s S, J WAv S nT nT, i@ ASB Osɻ U ATAU |


[ JO ]


qeAB s@ SS-A@S cU , ceU BAT rNc^ A@ , ~-w\ ? TS OUS Sq, c Acr®AF ~S@vq B ~a s SS-A@S, R cXoc OH ~co | AF jq Qn TkU ~FSAUA oSF cAr, cU F R LL e @ AcrK o R oH JMaS jce i@@R q cAo OAU @, jq U UQF | o c^ cUU ި cU S, @H jq rNAv Ag @TS sS AF ISISAS JA@ T; ~O SS-A@خS Ag ~co ~OH @\S, ̮ jce ک |

jq SS-A@S TS ަU, @U@ɩ ިS ɦ j@ Acrf, ~F^ BS U@, Av @ j@ gAcFcf U gUFAxvA @S | j@AS ^^ ~T@ m o cUUS, ~ha, AT ^ aU, SS-TFv cU A@a BS ? ~AT sɮc AcS q@Uv AT gc@ TZ cUUT, ~ ɰ, ~T TS ަrS Sq, c SS-TFv Ai@ TS ަa S, A ~Fxv-TFv cU A@ j@v cB ia, qv A@ ...? S S, ~FAxv c S, ~ɮU ~T@ d cUaS, cQ|q cm, cA@ c ~cm, q gcAaUT, ~cm@ SS-TFv A qxvv @U ^ j@v cfB @ s, RJ cHf |

sq@, SS-A@خS cXoc AUZaS ~B ; ~S@ SS cq ewpf, ~c ~S@ ݩ ~BR qm aS a | An Acre of Green GrassjTS j@Av cq s j@c ަU rK S, cc ަUR S | ArST ~oHL aA ~a cq AAv ~Q | cXoc cqAv@ cUaS, A Review of Modern Bengali Literature | j o AAg S, jce ~oAS@ rNAvR gAH Tn, @H ceU AF ~f-cTS-gAcKF cq ~SwS jZS, ~U T | cXoc TT c Qn j@T S R wUR, J ~^䰻pA OT@ A s | cf^S AUZaS, ".. in his boyhood or youth he displayed no prodigious talents, no revolutionary fire; he obeyed conventions and followed his elder; he was rather slow, rather dim and timid. If he died at Keat's age, he would have been a minor poet of the anthologies, taking his turn with twenty others; at Shelley's, a fascinating figure whom poets and scholars would be constantly 'discovering'; if his life had closed at fifty, or seventy even, he would not have meant to us as much as he does. His death, at eighty, has been premature, for he was still changing, still growing. Throughout his life, he has grown like some great tree, slowly, inperceptibly, with gentle passivity." [25] jq cq ~T BS, A@ا jq cfQ ~T AOAS S cXoc | jTS ̮Avg OS S AASq |

~c ~@ Bw, ceU gK AUZaS, ... The one inherent and practically irremediable weakness of Bengali is its lack of verb-roots. This, too, verse can circumvent and even turn into an advantage, but prose has no way out. What we envy English most is its inexhaustible capacity for turning nouns and adjectives, whatever their origin, immediately into verbs. Bengali is so verb-shy that for a great number of actions we have no choice but to use the root 'to do' or 'to be' after the appropriate nouns, and the writer who wishes to avoid monotony has to have its wits about him all the time...." [26] ceU jce qeAB q gK ~ Qة @U cq jTS AXo^ JMaS c | gK@ jTS gUcɮ ɲA@ AAF@ Ag AcU ; sAR J ~B@U ~S@q ceU-cJOR qFA ~^US rA@ |

An Acre of Green Grass ~T ZAS@ ~QR a | Av @H | T:, j cq ަU cI s qeAB UZ cS cXoc Ag @ةv AaU, s ݩ J ceU UZ U ~S@erq O s | J TTA@ Ag AF cFOf c QT AaU ~ @ BS, sTS ~^re@ c of^S, c jJ @شq qeAB UZ TS TSAScr @SAS | Tcm ToF Sf̰O^ OMof ceU jce qeAB q AFq mQ ZaS, sAR J qeAB UZ cFA R @K ~ JO | AXfݩ:, jq cq A̩ emH cXoc AUZUS S @S ? An Acre-j T @r 1948 U, ~: ceU AF ca ~SSF R ~B o ; c^ cXoc qeAB ~UOS @ ~T cA UT, s ~cCAU ~Swf @a ceUɮAF oS AO@ ̩ |

AF c^f ~UOS cXoc ~ cUfU ~T To @ | T, v@AS@ qFA ~F^ gA AcKR AAS oH i@ cAowTF @ US sS ~Sɮ mha^F | BfcSS^ @Ac @-R @AcTf AcrK @A cq, A@ا ZS ~UOS wb۩ R c@FwiS BAvU ~S@ Qnq sS AcgA^@ | J F wS BfcSS^ wF@R q wT @ U | ~SFA@ cXoc UZ Sf T wAT |

Tg @- OS@U 1971-74 | T@cF AcrKH cUU cq @T cU , jq cqAv ASBq T@AcF@ | AF, rS, oT R gKɩL jTS erK s@S r AFq AcU | jq cq BSAa, cIAa ~S@, ~c cAIASR ~\ S | Tg @ i@ @a @R ~S@v ~r @, ک R rfUS | ~SF ~S@ Qn S-cI AcTZ BA̩ @; A@ا j cq ~Xg Sf, ɩ ɩ wf, gA ~O ̮ ~UOS sS j@ AS:r rK @ qha @ | Tg @ @ AQ XopA cɩU, jq cq ˻@ة Tw | jTS cq UZ BSF s wb UZSfrA BS, BfcS j@c rK j cXoc ިިAq AaU | jce jq @Hq J OU sR ~@U | Ag c Tg THF j-cq pA@H @ ZAS@ Ag^oTf, jce ~T @a cXoc AcrKH ~ m a |

cXoc ~LPBcAS@ OS, ~T aUcU, ~T sMcS jce ~T ~T @AcgcS | UZ@ BfcS o cq S, ~c o AgR S | j- TI ASEO ~a @S ATU jce q ATU sTS @ ATUa Ag cq ~U c wa qFA ~EOs CA (SA@ an) Ai@ TS @q cXoc ATAUaS J Ri w\ | jZS WvS cHS ja ~S, A@ا ASB AccS aR a U mha | Aީ-Tɩ cA aUcU J g AaUS AAT-ɰTrq, J Prrc UF, P@r @MHf@ة R sMcS s^H, cq aA ia cXoc Ag AS^S Ac@r | Acc eA@ة Ag A AAS c OUaS, sn BS @UT@ av a Wɦ T, fS @UB ~mmF@ Acr BfAc@ @AvaS @Av ca | moT A A@ cU fA TSK@ jTS AAmA AgR Am Z, pArfU Z, gc ~c@ | ~T s cpA TA˩ @R cJOc ~r AZ, AASݩ Tm@ R TwB Acn @R TSS@ ~wU Oq, jq cq iF | jq AS j@BS AO^rfU c^Ψ@ J FAv@U R AA @@ cUUS, TrS-vTrS AT @a S , AT ~c UZ-vZ ! rK @AU mw, sS @S wA ~SF | cA j cXoc jq c UZ ɩ AaUS, c^ΨAv | sv ~T @a Acv Acm, cXoc ~S@ UZq ݩ ArAT@ ɩaAS, A@ا ZS Sq @S @TTqB a | BS mvv ATUj AAS@FU A, the writings by which a man can live are not those that themselves live [27] cXoc Qn Zv S | AAS cJOaS jce J UZR cJOa J@ aAs |

jq cqAU ަU ~@Av cF Zc m Ri, ASB Acrɮ R oH TAv cXoc @ةv l R B AaUS | qeAB s@ integrity cU , @r AAv CA | ~T sMcSj rT Aha AUZaS, "co ^ɮcq gc, b@ aU ~S@q Zc Acc@S^ ަa ZS, A@ا s-aU@ r ca c ~J@ oAaUS cf^S, ~ jqTn s@ @JA A wa BqS ~, մAe qv @f @ Acc@S^ @S ?" ~ AUZaS, @TS @ AUf @بT j J wb m-rXo @ػ, AO̩ Ta AwAaU, AUf @بT @Ac @ػ cXoc ~@v R ~A TT BSS BSF | ~B@U sZS UZ@ AUAv@FAU @v R gfKH BdA, ZS cXoc cFAnT ~T OT@ |


[ a ]


cXoc ASB pArfU OO rAr ~@ oS @B s @aS s wgf gc ceU AFcf j@ c j@Ao@ B^ | ASB AFBfcS c sq cXoc An@ ɰS BA۩ AaUS, jce ZS J gkAT@ o ɰ@q AaU S, AAS AaUS j@ TgTxv ~wHf | wA, @Ac, PcrZf qFA An@ OUa J @A^@ l jce ~S@ Qn ASB ZOR | ceU oHF @Ac-dAO@ AA @ AaS cXoc ~cS ~A̮fT ; ~B s AUAcAv v, -rv qB g-ATA cHf A cS, J cTS ~AmL ~S@vq cXoc j@ ~oFc خU |

cXoc A @S An@ eZF ~T SR sw AS, A ިS:TA @Ac cf^-eZF aɦ | jq eZF @r T cf^S cTS, jce @Ac eZF AAS Amϩ T ɩq, cU, Acsm, gC j@Av mQ | R o STAv, ްcf cLR sS Ta wa, BBB PSF | cqAv ZUq, jq ɩ IJA@ A s, TS s Tg ^, ~BSR j@AS wfc U SAS, j@ BfcS oSOO @fA, A^ | jq eZF UZ ~BS ~kc, jce s Z ~EOs , c UZq AST ~FSAUA TBB R OO SS pA@H | cf^S UZS cXoc@, T 18, 1941 U, "~T@ ~cUcS @ jc@ @Ac An@ AF c^ s @U ~UOS @Ar a TS kH R AcOA̩ c^ qAkc @S cCU An@ ~AT AZAS, j ~T Q AcmBS@ |" [28] cf^S Acm TkU ~UOS J@ AS S cU, J AF AS cU, jce ceU cU | ~B@ s cmvU UZ@ Tv@ "AAݦ" SF cf^S@ OSS, c rɰ wcK@ Xgv fA S, j@c @Ac An@ jq @pr@ eZFAv ScS |

TTA@ UZ@ c^ cXoc ~w cɰAT | BfcSS^ @cF@ gU Uw ArAZaS ~T, ~S@vq cXoc | ~SFR J pA ~wO AaUS S ; j@ AOAi AUZaS, "... @Ac An@ T̬l gK TZoF @Ac ~S j@c OZ a | AAS A ްA@ ST A j@Av @Ac cq c @aS, j@ZS cq ~B ~S@ iS U | ~AT ASB gK @Ac AcrK ~Swf, j ~\ c jZAS rA @r ~T Acm@ TS | cqZS ~S @TS UwU BS U gK o s lA cS S, J ~LAXoR sw ATUc |..." [29] AOAi @ cf^S | TTA@ @Ac A @ةv TAT @U, jTS AOAi UZ s |

cXoc jq ~cS mH @aS TS TAT@R | UfU TBT J @ذf cq AUZaS, "S AZ @ cU c S, cXoc qAToF BfcS r @B @U ~BAS d @ AU | @B cU @S ~EOs OS @ gcAa S | j OR c @B | cXoc SS gc ~oAS@ ceU AF wɦ ޫS @ wa | ~T@ c dH @Ac cUaS, cXoc @aq J T l R sAw aS | .... ~AT cq cAU ~T UZ@ Ri TkU ~T c^Ψ cXoc ɩR ~a | @ة Bw ~T ArrAF oS, ~T ceU gK AcK SgkArfU T^cF @a, j @ gUc S |"[30]

ASB UZ cqR cXoc jq gc Acmp aS j@Av sw, j@Av @U |

cXoc A ~oAS@ ceU @Ac ~T cɮBfcS AcrK ~cUcS | @S @cF USq kH S, @H @cF cFvq j@Av wTS, w^cF S | lLLR cXoc jq US ~Ao@gc APSAo@, jce qZSq ˻@ة | ~T gUU OUc S, cf^S SpLR jTS j@Av US @B AaU, A@ا OS c^ Aco R oH i@ TS er ~c@r ~\ AaU S |

w rNf AXf r@ Swɰ ceU AF rfU-~rfU AS W̩ X^ | TkU ScfS R cfH ToF, jce rASc AOAi gpA An@ ~SWvS | ~B@ sw jTS PX cr ɮF@ ; ceU empA ިo An@ @Ac ~oF ZUU ~FSvAT@U ~UOS aɦ A@aq OZ S | c sw, Q AaU vwcw, dH @ػf ~oAS@ kBA, Acf QHrfU | jq WkHc ~wgw AaUS cXoc, ~crFq ScfS Q | @ػ-Ac@ػ, sA-~sA okTS j c Ri s rK sF^ AF AT @v T@سT Ri SAS BSF, BɦɮJ@ B S, cɰf R Accɰf Q | cXoc ASB gK, "... Some well-meaning and optimistic persons, themselves outside any literary circle, appealed for arbitration to Rabindranath, who was finally persuaded to preside over a conciliatory meeting. Two sessions were held at the Jorasanko house, the two 'parties' as well as the neutrals strongly represented, and Rabindranath, for whom the occasion of the meeting could mean but little, spoke in his flute like voice on fundamental principles, later developing his remarks into two essays entitled 'The Form of Literature' and 'Literary Criticism', which produced a fresh controversy, and one so confused and confusing that the hoped-for conciliation looked remoter than ever.." [31]

j@q SAS Acf Q T^cF rS s@, "... we heard that Tagore had expressed a wish to call a meeting of both the sides at his house and hear our arguments. We were invited to go. At first both Mohit Babu and I were semewhat hesitant. We thought that it might be a trap or even an ambush. But finally we revised our opinion, thinking that if we did not go we would be condemned by default......After some others had spoken I took up the debate. But I do not think I spoke well at all. I was not then used to public speaking or debate, however cavalier-like I might have been with my pen. The only adavantage on our side was that our enemies spoke even worse. Their main spokesman was a young writer from Dacca, who spoke with the strong accent of his city. Tagore did not say anything, but only listened with an impassive face." [32]

b@ iA UZ@ AO Bq ~ST | XopA Sf̰O^ OMof ~LBfcSf AXf Z @ | ~SFn Sf̰O^ cXoc AF Ag swF mf@p AaS |


[ ɩ ]


cXoc c jq ASc^ rK jR ~T wU | j @H c P@Aݩ ArSTq AAa | ^S @ZSR ب S, cXoc c T AS Sq | cɰ qU ~S@ A@aq, J Sv@, J c w\-SFɮ-@Ac-SS A@خS, jce ~ c A@a | J Os ~T R ~T OH OUc BfcS |

he has not created a Sakuntala or Faust, a Commedia or War and Peace; we seek in vain for a 'master-piece', a single work that contains him so to say, on which we can lay our hand and say we have him. His effect is gradual and cumulative; you have to go back and forth .... to get what he can give. [33]

cf^S cXoc |

jce jq j@q ~U@ɩ ~cF˻ J ASB QnR | cXoc@ R s S J @S j@Av OS ToF c oq J OSɮTw ToF |

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|| F޵f ||

[1] ~T aUcU - cXoc c, jT. A. @ ~F ^ : AU:, T @r : TO 1972, O˻ @r : T 1997 - p 112

[2] ~oAS@ ceU @Ac - cXoc c A, jT. A. @ ~F ^ : AU:, T @r TO 1954, ިSTH BUq 1998 [~: c:] - p 143-145

[3] ~: c: - p 148

[4] ~: c: - p 149 [5]

[5] V.S.Naipaul - Nobel Lecture - http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/2001/naipaul-lecture-e.html

[6] ~T @AcgcS - cXoc c, Ac@\, T @r Sgc 2001 - p 46

[7] AA - cXoc c, AS jB cAUrɮ : AU:, K emH Ac 2000 [A:] - p 208

[8] A:- p - 324

[9] A: - p - 82

[10] AOAin, Kɦr Z - cf^S i@ب, Acrg̩f w^SAcgw, @r MK 1402, [AO:] - p 121

[11] ɩ g cpA - cXoc c, jAT.A.@ ~F ^ : AU:, T @r : jAU 1967, T TH BSA 1990 [:] - p 52

[12] : - p 91

[13] : - p 91

[14] AO: - p 389

[15] AO: - p 147-148

[16] An Acre of Green Grass - Buddhadeva Bose, Papyrus, Published 1948, Reprint 1997 [Acre] - Page 56

[17] @\UU sw - ~AO^F@بT Sw, jAT.A.@ ~F ^ : AU:, T @r : ~ArS 1357, ~KvT @r : rcH 1405 - p 108

[18] AO: - p - 13

[19] AO: - p - 111

[20] AO: - p - 135

[21] AO: - p - 186

[22] AO: - p - 165

[23] AO: - p - 140

[24] AO: - p - 155

[25] Acre - Page 13

[26] Acre - Page 73

[27] The Intellectual In India - Nirad C Chaudhuri, Associated Publishing House, First Published 1967, Reprinted 1967 - Page 57

[28] AO: - p - 154

[29] AO: - p - 195

[30] @ذf - UfU TBT, ~S^ cAUrɮ : AU:, T emH BSA 1986, O˻ TH ~wmv 2001 - p 281

[31] Acre - Page 81-82

[32] Thy Hand, Great Anarch ! - Nirad C Chaudhuri, Addison-Wesley Publishing Compny Inc. First Printing, July 1988, First US Edition. - Page 229

[33] Tagore : Portrait of A Poet - Buddhadeva Bose, Papyrus, Published : 1962, Enlarged Edition : 1994 - Page 27




Published May 15, 2004

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