cXoc c : J OS Acrco R ~^BɻA@ة

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cCAU UZ@ ToF ˻ ~^BɻA@ AaUS cf^S | J gcS-AO^ g̩f AF o cXoTkU UR, J cFAL Tw, J l@F, gTHmp, ~SF empA@ ~^:m @ An, cɻA J AcrOS ~^BɻA@ TS AO m | kc-AEOT ATUS J @TF AaU, AcrTSc Acrɮ @S AAS, AcrAcFU S Aw AAS ASBq iAaUS j@ mekH AcrAcFU | ~^BɻA@ة ~˻ q TިdK @aq ArZAa ~T |

q oH sZS ArAQة cCAU @a ~ ~AAO qU S, qeAAB ArQ OUS AEOT Bw AF-empA j MJaU g̩cK, AcrK @U@ɩ-@A^@ ceU, ~S@ Acq ZS EOɩF gc AaU | A@ا cf^- cCAU UZ@ ToF @-BS q AcrOS@ ~^:m @AaUS ? j-r Bcc ZJB Aw fAT AcAm | S, cf^S o@ ToF q AcrTSm AcU |

cf^S ~or@ j@ TpFf Ar B^AaU ~Acg ceU ~cAU ~U kcc j@ TmU r, ~^ Ac | B^ Tk TɩpfS ArAv lQHl AީpA̩F AAU ɰ-AAT @a | ~ɮU ޡrf T ~A-cU Tp@\ ArAv s ~M BfAc @c j AO^ @q @\S ToF AaU S | Tv AaU Acr r@ T r@, Ac^ ScBɩ@ cJOSq @AiS AaU ZS, ~ B^ Tk s TɩpfS Pc q AaU j@Tn g̮ | Pc @AaU jq ArAv@, j@Tn ^S A r@خ^ TɩTf-TɩT ~@UTp @SF j@Tn ^SAv@ ~A ~ɰ UUS-US @S | T-cc ~gc ArAv @ZSq ~Sgc @AS, @H ˻ ɰ-Aq AaUS T-cc | J ArAv ST ZS cXoc |

cXoc c BfcS w\ j@ ~TSF Ag ~Ao@f "c" U AcU w\ | cf^S AcA@ AF, Pcgc, AA, ~AgBɩF, j@ cpl Ac AAU To R H Ao@, EOɩF empA AS ިdK AO, @Svq cXoc AaU S | AaU oq Dr̰ Ag R To, ~LAcrɮ, AFi ~S^ pG, mkH j@@ R j@w O, rn ɮ@ SwHF @ rA, jce AXo^ ~STF @ QT | gwF Ac۲cS AީpAO o c ްAc ToFq fTcXo AaU |

AAS q S cBɻ-Acof ScF qxvU@OU Acr r@ SS ~ɰr, ɰS c Ai@i@q AaU pHTkU @ i ~ɮ, ~ɻgc AS^ sXo cFp, ~oH AgcS jq @Ac aUAv, A@ا cɰ oU cFA-mɩ^F, TAxv@ TS | ~T @ذ c TFc BSF Uq @c ~A˻@ TF AaU S, AaU S A ~e@ | @S Aq @ S | @A˩ g cer ToFAc Ac B^R q T ~Acg ceU s ~QA@ ~˻ @S OUOU AaU S, AaU S cerw BATcA, s ASB ~A˻@ ~ASEOݩ ~ Ac^, ~@r OJ@ @ZSq IUS dAv TS @, ~c ASB@ a, Tv-TB @Ac TS @ Q c AS | ~Prrcq cFAnTf cFAL @v AaU | cɮ @S ASB ASB j@ @\S AS, j@ m TSBw, ZUoU ~ASha@ j@ gc@ @Ac | EOlް T:mU SZAU cq - o cq - Ar-Ar ~Q f | ASɩ rN ZU | @Ac UZ, UZ An@ c @, Sv@ PA Sr | c^Ψ cU ԰ - ɰ | J SAAv s AcrK ~AOq cIAaUS AAS | , AASݩ ArAv B^w Ag@ mبA̩ @ ASB@ lw @AaUS |

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cXoc ca c ~crK SZAU @ b@ jUS J T jce | b@ cXoc c BfcS T r | gA US @UABv mU, ~v | J ~LBfcSfTkU@ av SFɮ "~SF @SZS" ަU Ay cI s @f ATH TA AaUS AAS r T ~Agک | qO AvUq AcF ~U BU jTS Acm gc s ! r ^ ިS \vS O@بA BfcS c A j@ v@ BAT A@S ~QA@ ~˻ j@Av Uc AvS W cAS @ ~o~Ao @ W cɮ cSUS ɰ | jce T- q ASB OUW nTr iAaU b@ fTS @Ac-AAF@ oS ~ɦmU, BUT an ATUSQn | jZS @q d cXoc AAF@ Ac@r R A, To mf@pA, jce ~^BɻA@ة ZA | b@ ArQ Bwl cXoc c AcF-cAXo-Ag-To AcިU Tɰ @AaU | A@^, AcrAcFU UqcA SwU c ~wq, Acr®AF J ZA AaU | AAS AaUS jTS j@ r@ AsAS cXoc TS ZU AAaUS cp Acr j@ j@ BSU, AO @AAaUS q, Ar, kOF R ToFOF gF, empA jce AF | gOH i@ب̩ ST@ q sc@ T A@r cXoc m-ASs A S U ~A ~\ cݮ @q Acr@ Ti sS S SAɮ aUAv | T@ػ AAS cXoc WAST c^Ψ ~AB c vS TT gq AaUS, qeAAB s@ cU Ԭmv @ABS, ~O Acr Sg Bɦ @ c BSF caUS ~Lfݩ k̩ @ABS cXoc@ | ~BfcS jq ~Aggc@خT c^Ψ-gɩAv@ ~fT @pک mH @aS AAS | ~LBfcSf ger "~T aUcU", "~T sMcS" jce ~SF ~S@ mpAOH T @pک AUZaS gOH @, J cXo @ | BfcS rK @cFw^ "mw Ac" -j ~EOs @Ac c^- j mf@A BAS waS J Bw @S AS Tp c^Ψ ~ɮ-sR @S | of^, gOH, ATU |

q ASBS, s m OZR ZAS,
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jq ASAv TSK ToF j@Avq TSF-kn AZ ~AT | jJ ASBSq fQHof AaUS, BfcS Ag^ Ag^ T cXoc c ~^BɻA@ TSm@ ި @AaUS, Qبo @AaUS |

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P@r-sMcS O AgSAr AF ަ ~crFcf gc AaU cXoc c T A@ UZ, AcrK J SF mvqU | vq mgAc@ | @UB BfcS @Ar "wA" An@ @q AcAr AF AcK UZUAZ jce ~Sc OOɻ d | b@ AcrAcFU cɰAT qeAAB AF an cXoc fQ ZɩR Acr®AF @ػ Acmp S QF cS @ jTSq rS s | jTS an@ AS ArQ@ sv wc, fQ@ vq Acm AaU | A@ا cXoc ASB s cq j Bwq cA^ AaUS, A UZ@ Ac ZSq A - J @aq SAa - fQ Rv j@ ~S^@ WvS AaU J @a | AcrK AcKv AF AaU cU ަ-UZ q-q AaU Z | mA TS BS Sq, cq BS, o UZ BSF @S Ac@\AU cacS vq s AccOF | j S an BSF @ةpQ fQ OU@UfS O ~AS AS, Awv Zc sw AS | J b@ c^Ψ F@q Zɦ an AaUS, AcrAcFU wMc AaUS @Uq, A@ا av cݮ @q cq @Ar R jce J@ AS gk Ac@ػ-~UOS-BS @Hq cXoc@ AcrK ToF AcrK Ac Z b@, AcrAcFU ToAc an Rv esBS Tn |

1931-j jT. j. r @ AAS b@ a mfgc @U@ɩ OU ~S | d J @ZS-rK-S-R ewT - ~gc , c@L , ~rfU ~c , A@ا moT AcOF SAS @ZSq | AFq J BfcS j@Tn @^ AaU ~TpF | 1935-j A @S "@Ac" - o @Ac BSF lAw ceU T AUvU TFwABS (jq rNAvR cXoc cq cS @S) - s 25 ca qAɮ Acr r@ ~oAS@ ceU @Ac AccS qAɮ | jq An@ ToFR "Acrf AF" ST@ j@Av ~Uɰ ~er @ة, @ة ~Scɰ, jce ~UOS | ~S@q ݩ BSS S s @Ac gcS @ AAS jB ɴ "@SFArɮ" @r @AaUS, sZS ɴ ~TA@ cAB, @ATASmv ^ wpcA^ | "wA" An@ @r T s m dH cXoc ZS "@Ac" An@ j q m sS ~ WSfgk U, @^ AS jUS o @Ac@, jce ~^BɻA@ة@ | cXoc c ~^BɻA@ة TkU lR ~a Acr®AF AcK J cU l jce ~AAO@ AAO @c, J @B dL O @ ~AoF cɮS | @Ac Av ~^BɻA@ eZF ZU jq T^cF ~˻ mĩ c |

W cR s cq j ToF A Acr@ Ti R s ASB ~Agک BSAaUS cU, nT nT j@ ~SSF ~Scɰ@ gkAT@ J@ q ~T, AsAS ~Scɰ @aS i@@ j@ SS Bwl OS | cXoc TTA@ ~S@ @Acq q c k OF @Ac ~Scɰ @aS, A@ا ~SkA OS R TkU UZ@ EOlv AcK i@@ ~cA @S, q r AF-empA AO @S, ~SkA AF@ Acr®AF AAQ mS @ i@@ j@ cp Bw TZTAZ ~S Ov@بR J ~w ~SF @ش @SAS | ~T TS , cXoc sZS qeAAB ~Sc Acr®AF ަ d @S b@, J A@r c, J TS q c UZ@, empA, T@UfS Ar\-AF qFA AcK ~S@ r Bw s AAS S S | q T ~Scɰ AF ~ BSc s @MkU AAS ~Sgc @S, s c r J@ ~Am @̩, S BS s ~gc J@ A۩ @̩, q mpA J TS @ @ZSq Ta sAS | cfH c MJa Jq T @MkUf i@ BSF, dH i@ BSF, AF an BSF J BfcScFf wcKH AUU ^먽 @ AAaUS ~Sc gkAT@ STof ~TSF c c^, vf@ | fAT wcKH n q c gkAT@ rF j@Avq : oH ToF Acr®AF OS O R | ~crFq jq cH cXoc ArQ@ c O@ ~SF ; A@ا ~AT TS @A, cɻA j J @f ~g^ AO, s AAS wA R @Ac An@ ɰ@ Ac fW@U AaS | j@ j@ @Ac@ i@ ɩ o AOASaS AAS, BfcSS^-AcG -T S-gK TZoF S, c cɰU-AU@-F\AUS-mS@ | pAcf qA jTS H Av ~a cU BASS | me j@ @fATS pArfU UZ@ R AAS TS @S ̩ ~^ FT TTA@ ~ @Ac-UZ@ rAm waS cI B S, sA S ~T TAS s @Ac - cp˻ Acr®AF - ɮSq J j@Tn "oT" AaU | ~crFq q oT sB@ AaUS AAS, AaUS O@ |

~^Bw oH AA S U s "AF" AcrAݩ Av ~o @ s, Acrɮ cXoTkU AaU cUq ~Scɰ@ j@ cFAnTf o cA @ AaUS | AZAaUS ~Scɰ Slq gK^ S, TkU OS@ j@ gK @ ~SF gK vS ~Sq s S, ˻@ ~Scɰ@ i c m-w^ TMAU@ OS, TkU OS ~^: (j^) jce ~L (U) ~Qب^ Z | TS Z c ~Sc Ac@\ "~SpA" rNAvq cAr wHswF jZS, ~ɻl, ~Scɰ @S sA^@ XoA S, ASBq j@ TMAU@ pA | TkU gK AcrK rN ~c rNc^ ~QA@ ~Scɰ U S cU TUOS sZSq TZ S, ZSq cI c J ASB pArfU @Ac c UZ@ SS | j@ gK OS ~SF gK OS AcA @ pBSAn AcK J ~SAg | j @ AcrKgc sBF @Ac ~Sc Qn | "ss" c "AcXo" ~Scɰ cU A@a Sq, A@a S, TkU Xo ~Sc Q @ c S cUq | j@ r ~SF r empA ˻@F gK AAU | A @ ceU, ~c ceU @ qeAAB ~Sc T ~QA@ ~˻ "ss" c O AsAS @S, AAS TkU BwR MJaS S, ~SA gK Bw ToFR b@ QT S S, TIZS Anre@ب IU @S | J ~Scɰ ԮAF RiS | iswF ~Scɰ c ~SpA ToF Aq ~T rK s^ Acr@ AOAS, BS A AcAg^ empA ~AmL, jTS A@ ~T "g̩f" AO@ ~Qبu Z Ag^ gKgAK ~UAU@R B Za ~Scɰ | TkU gK BSU ~Sc gK AF ަ r Ri S, ~ TkU gK S BS @U (~Ao@er Qnq BS @ S), @ ~Scɰ "ss" S BS @S Sq | oH i@ ~ScɰAv AF Ac Av @ةv gw @U, vq oS AcOs | cCAU qeAAB wfɵAU ަ ~M gU Uw S, gAwF ceU gK kH ~ qv gU UwAaU, S cf^S ScU Rq S | Acr J@ AAO @ ~Scɰ aɦ @f ? ~ɻl, ~Scɰ ~^BɻA@ة j@ ~As ~, ~Sc sF aɦ Acr@ BS AXf @S Sq | cXoc c sMcS cݮ @q jq Acrɮ J An@AU ToF A O @aS | jq gcS X ~SAH q ~oAS@ f @Ac cCAU i@ W B MJa c rToF R cF@ ~Scɰ @T ɩ S ToFc | rK s^, AASq g̩cK T cS @S Acr®AF ~@AT@ inT "USTkU@ AF", ScASAT sɰcި AcrAcFU |

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cXoc ~^BɻA@ة ~Sc ~UOS A@av fW U, A@ا ~c^ S | A@r cݮ @ s Acrco AFi ToF A J Ag cXoTkU AaU, @f gc q co A̩ U c rZ, rK s^ kH U USTkU@ AF A, jq EOlv cFA v cI c S |

j r ~B @ ~o rNfR ~w @UB iF AcK Ac USTkU@ AF cS ArQQn j@ sw^@f WvS | @v ~AT gcAO^q cUAa, ~cwA۩ S | jce "sw^@f" AcrKHAv ~QA@ ~˻q cFc @Aa |

cXoc c ~Sgc @AaUS "AF" @S j@AvTn gK-ASg AcK Ac Ai U AF i oHvq ~F^ e@fH s | cmc vq Wva c@U o | ޡr r@ cvq, ~Ar r@R qeAAB AcgwAU AcAvr rɮ@ TBU @ c AS ; ~ ~ɡAU@ gK AcgwAUR e@fH @ e@fH c cH ZAhaU | cXoc c oF AaU S ArQ Bw TBFcɰf WJAv ɩ S | ~O AFi j@ ~ɰr J TS UAU AhaU c@U oq | sA AAS cf^S T AcިU BAT-Bݰ Ao@f S U ~crFq j@Av Acr®AF i ArQ@^ A @S j AcK ~T ^Tn Sq, A@ا ~˻gwF J@ ^޻H jAq OUa ~TpF | c W J m ~eAr@gc @ AaU |

1953 U AAS sZS Tc ~TA@ ަ sS, "@زAvg AUvO" ST@ AF iFnT J T ɮA AO , jce ZS ~Lf-AcKAU ToF A@gc ~^Acgwf ~ɰS-S OU | ZSq rK S, AF s ewf, Ar\, AST ~coA̩ sw ~a, ToF s US, ATUS R cɮ c q oHR cXoc@ TA @ | J m jq cmcAݩ ZR AAS A@aq @ S S jq e@fH-AO^ r, sA S g l@UfS ArQT^f S TݨS @cf, AsAS sɰcި AcrAcFU w U @B cXoc c O swF cFA cU ~SF @ɴ@ TS @SAS, jce sɰcި jASfAe @UB v, @U@ɩ l@UfS T, AnH S m^ AO^ Acrɮf S | sS j@ Pcsw TTSm ASAv @ @a@Aa jU | ~A AS:rN eWAv U j@ Acc | Av SS Acgw mAީ U, g ~SF @S AcrAcFU s @S ~AmL AaU S | Avq ~^BɻA@ inT Acgw | cXoc c A @US USTkU@ AF, Acr®AF@ @UAB ArQ A̮ jS UUS j@@ O | qxvSFrSU jFɮ TݨS @cf ASBm m خU | AnH S 1+3+2 jq Ac gw @Uc AcS R @U Acgw 6 ca inT | r U oUS q SS AO^o PA cFAnTf @Fɲɮ AcrAcFUAv | d @ AUS c Acgw, AS:rN, j@AvR SS cA PA S @, jASfAe @UB A̮q, 1956 U | AB cf c TA\U@ vAcU ~@ml qU eZF c H cpAXo AaU ~crFq, A@ا jq TsAv AS ިA Tnq ca ToF ^ @S | @U@ɩ AcrAcFU Tf @ ަU S, wS @U@ɩ c@ ~ j@Av AcrAcFU PA wU - jTS mhaOf opĩ cU @بAީ AaUS J | cɻ TAS rA J ToF @U A@ ~A@ @ BS ! ~AT sɰcި "AcrAcFU" Ti-Wv R AUv@AS@ @ jASfAe @UB c AcA\e-j W-W r @ T ca T an, A cXoc c @SF, jq c WvSq FQذrf | AFq ~EOs sɰcި AcrAcFU mS jq qAɮ |

cXoc c ~^BɻA@ TS ~co U USTkU@ AF ~AUwAU c | J @ AUcɮ ~T AS AwAaU j@ Tɡ@ ~AAO Acr, ~OS c UZ@, ~BS c cq, jce ~AcrɮF AЩ c ~oF@ | sɰcި AT@ c cXoc c, of^S , wMfS rmf, ɰ ~JJ, ɰ UJ, Ag TF@hOS T ArQ@ @a Acr AF ަ ~Agک s ~T @ة Xo @AaU @TS @ cAU ! ~T ToF AcrOS BwH WAvAaU g̩cK ArQ Bw cXoc c :f ~cS "USTkU@ AF" - Acr®AF AQ AFi SS Ar |

cXoc c cA USTkU@ AF cf T ~SFSF AcrAcFU @ةv c A@ gc ~Sp a j @S wcKH-AgA@ SA ~AT A c S, c j @ ~B @Uq BSS s jZS g̩cK AF ަS oS ~TkU cU ja | ~Ar r@ @q AcS O OUAaU, A@ا w q r@ oq UQ @Aa AcrAcFUAU AF ArQ Qn USTkU@ AF@ BA SR a | @ ceU c AA^, qeAAB c BAv, AFOOɻ Qn USTkU@ ~UOS OUS nTcoTS, UQHfgc cAo a ~SF r jce g AcAg^ ~ɡAU@ AF AcK @MkU R OS, ~Sc dL ~B cn mf@p, jce j@TAn@ AF AcgwAU jTS ~oF@-wcK@ ~gc Sq s cTAn@ AFOOɻ lf, T jce A^ | USTkU@ ~^BɻwA@ AF gcS jZS AAv AF Acgw ~AchaF ~ |

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r@U gZ cq AF s j@Av cp e ~a, ~^BɻA@ OAn ~a, AF ~SrfUS Qn TS Sc T T TS R mha pAq O R OAaUS cXoc c | USTkU@ AF e R ˻@ة AS Uq S @ H mS ca SS AAS | g̩cK USTkU@ AF T j@Av cFAnTf Acgw q ޡr r@ A @ AFi@ e@fHTSm @ TA c rS @S | Acr®AF i R OOɻ ToF A ~^BɻA@ gcS Ar@ئ r @S dH ToF | ~BfcS J ASBm Acr ~S AaUS AAS | q Acrɮ p^ ToFTq @r @aS c T, ~rUfS c@-Ac @UQ @ S | ArQ@ Ac oq AcrAcFU wf ToF ~cXo S @ ASB pA@T ToF A coH BSF ^먽 @ S Acr®AF B, ZS USTkU@ AcOo XoA | sS ASBq RiS e |


cɮ 45; jAU, 2010

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